Breaking news: It has long been assumed that the gut and the brain communicate not only via a slow, hormonal pathway, but that there must be an additional, faster association between gut and brain. Melanie Maya Kelberer and her colleagues from Duke University, NC, now managed to detect this connection. Their paper has just been published in the renowned journal ‘Science’.

By researching a mouse model, they were able to show that the gut and the brain are connected via one single synapse. This is how it works: A cell in the gut (the so-called enteroendocrine cell) transfers its information to a nerve ending just outside the gut. At the connecting nerve ending (the synapse), the neurotransmitter glutamate – the most important excitatory transmitter in the nervous system – passes on the information about our nutrition to small nerve endings of the vagal nerve, which spreads from the brain to the intestines.

Vagal nerveBy travelling along this vagal nerve, the information from the gut reaches the brainstem within milliseconds. The authors now state that a new name is needed for the enteroendocrine cells, now that they have been shown to be way more than that. The name ‘neuropod cells’ has been suggested. The authors interpret their findings as such, that this rapid connection between the gut and the brain helps the brain to make sense of what has been eaten. Through back-signalling, the brain might also influence the gut. In sum, this finding is an important step towards a better understanding of how the gut and the brain communicate. Findings such as this one help us to find ways to positively influence our brain states and our mental health by our food choices.

Read the original paper here: http://science.sciencemag.org/content/361/6408/eaat5236.long

Kaelberer, M.M., Buchanan, K. L., Klein, M. E., Barth, B. B., Montoya, M. M., Shen, X., and Bohórquez, D. V. (2018), A gut-brain neural circuit for nutrient sensory transduction, ​Science,
​ Vol. 361, Issue 6408

 

Please share and like us:

Every time I travel and enter the breakfast room of my hotel, I think of Japan.

And not just because of the curious surprises that I encountered when traveling there. (Once, the hotel’s definition of a ‘western style breakfast buffet’ was shrimp pasta and pepperoni pizza!) The Japanese have an interesting relationship with their nutrition. Japanese cuisine is said to have a much higher dietary diversity than western cultures do.

This is associated with a reduced intellectual decline at older age, as was reported by Rei Otsuka and colleagues in 2017 (among others).  In other words, daily intake of various kinds of food lower the risk that you encounter a reduction of your cognitive abilities as you grow older.

Outstanding, even in Japan, is the island of Okinawa, where many people grow very old very healthily. It is not only dietary diversity that contributes to a long and healthy life. The Okinawans have a useful saying: “Hara hachi bu,” which loosely translates to “only fill up to 80%”. Unlike many of us, they don’t snack, but leave their intestines several hours to process the food. And they move a lot – from walking to dancing and martial arts.

Four Easy Rules for Healthy Eating and Lifestyle

So when I approach the buffet, I like picking a little bit of everything – which is fun, contributes to an interesting breakfast conversation, and might even be a smart move for my brain function and mental health!

The real challenge at a buffet, of course, is not to overeat.

Otsuka, R., Nishita, Y., Tange, C., Tomida, M., Kato, Y., Nakamoto, M., Imai, T., Ando, F. & Hiroshi Shimokata, H. Dietary diversity decreases the risk of cognitive decline among Japanese older adults, Geriatr Gerontol Int, 17: 937–944 (2017)  https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/ggi.12817

Please share and like us:

Isn’t it amazing what a regular breakfast habit can do for you?

An old German saying states breakfast as the most important meal of the day. And it might be right! A review by Rampersaud and colleagues (2005)(1) investigated the effect of a regular breakfast habit on a variety of outcomes. They concluded that children and adolescents who typically ate breakfast – irrespective of the quality of the food – tended to have better nutritional profiles, were less likely to be overweight – even though they consumed more calories per day! – and had improved cognitive function (measured by memory assessment and test grades).

These findings are crucial since more than half of the high school students reported having skipped breakfast most days in the previous week. What was a big surpriseMuesli yogurt fruit was even a bowl of ‘unhealthy’ ready-to-eat cereal seems to be superior to not having breakfast at all.  However, to maximize the potential benefits of breakfast consumption, of course, a healthful breakfast should be favoured.

In addition to the effects stated above, children’s psychosocial functioning improved significantly when a school breakfast was introduced, indicating that it’s never too late to change your eating habits and benefit from the positive effects of a regular breakfast. A school breakfast program even had positive effects on measures of child depression and hyperactivity.

Parental Eating Habits Effect Children
Importantly, parental breakfast eating was not only a significant predictor of adolescent breakfast eating. The frequency of family meals was the most significant parental influence on adolescent eating habits and even increased the likelihood that children, as well as adolescents, made more healthy food choices in general. So whether you are a caring parent seeking to support your child’s mental health or whether you are a student seeking to improve your potential – remember the German saying when you enter the kitchen in the morning. Grab that whole grain bread, muesli or fresh fruit and vegetables and start your day with an extra portion of brain food and good nutrition!

(1) Rampersaud GC1, Pereira MA, Girard BL, Adams J, Metzl JD. Breakfast habits, nutritional status, body weight, and academic performance in children and adolescents. J Am Diet Assoc.2005 May;105(5):743-60; quiz 761-2. PMID: 15883552; DOI: 10.1016/j.jada.2005.02.007

Please share and like us: