Vegans abstain from all animal products, for example, meat, fish, milk and dairy products, honey and other substances from animal origin, like milk powder. Nevertheless, countless foods remain that are “vegan” by nature: vegetables, fruits, cereals, legumes, rice, nuts, pasta (if made without eggs, of course), and so on. By contrast, vegetarians eat products made of meat but don’t eat meat and fish itself.

Positive results on (mental) health:

  • A raw vegan diet brought a positive change in quality of life, and a decrease of anxiety and stress (3)
  • A low-fat vegan diet for people with diabetes or BMI >=25 over 22 weeks showed that general health, physical functioning, mental health, and vitality improved in the vegan group (4)
  • In the vegan group, lower stress and anxiety were observed. In men, lower anxiety was related to vegan diet; in females, lower stress was related to vegan diet, and a lower daily intake of sweets (5)
  • Vegans tend to be thinner, have lower serum cholesterol, and lower blood pressure, which is reducing their risk of heart disease (6)
  • Vegetarian diet is associated with many health benefits because of its higher content of fiber, folic acid, vitamins C and E, potassium, magnesium, and many phytochemicals and a fat content that is more unsaturated (6)

But is the only difference the food intake? (7)

Vegans/ Vegetarians…

  • smoke or drink less than average
  • exercise more
  • care more about the ethics and quality of their food
  • are less likely to eat fast food

And there are also negative results:

On the contrary there are studies stating that a strictly vegan/vegetarian diet may be a risk factor for mental health; e.g. higher anxiety and depression levels compared to people who also ate meat and other animal products (8, 9).

But this might be explained by a key bias, because the majority of vegan / vegetarian eaters are female, unmarried, younger, and highly educated. These are all characteristics which are associated with a higher prevalence of mental disorders (10).

So, more research is needed until we can state whether a vegetarian or vegan lifestyle might be beneficial for our mental health or not. Generally speaking, enhancing the fruit, vegetable, and legume content of our everyday food will lead to increased uptake of vitamins, minerals, trace elements, and fibers. These are necessary for a physically healthy lifestyle – and most likely for your mental health status, too.

REFERENCES:

  • Healthy food is key to a healthy mind (2017, October 9) retrieved 3 February 2020 from https://medicalxpress.com/news/2017-10-healthy-food-key-mind.html
  • Skopos (2016): 1,3 Millionen Deutsche leben vegan.
    Online unter: https://www.skopos-group.de/news/13-millionen-deutsche-leben-vegan.html [11.06.2019]
  • Link, L. B., & Jacobson, J. S. (2008). Factors affecting adherence to a raw vegan diet. Complementary therapies in clinical practice14(1), 53–59. doi:10.1016/j.ctcp.2006.12.005
  • Katcher, H. I., Ferdowsian, H. R., Hoover, V. J., Cohen, J. L., & Barnard, N. D. (2010). A worksite vegan nutrition program is well-accepted and improves health-related quality of life and work productivity. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism56(4), 245-252.
  • Beezhold, B., Radnitz, C., Rinne, A., & DiMatteo, J. (2015). Vegans report less stress and anxiety than omnivores. Nutritional neuroscience18(7), 289-296.
  • Winston J Craig, Health effects of vegan diets, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 89, Issue 5, May 2009, Pages 1627S–1633S, https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.2009.26736N
  • Veganism and Vegetarian Effects on Mental Health, retrieved 3 February 2020 from (https://www.serenitymaliburehab.com/veganism-vegetarian-effects-mental-health/
  • Lavallee, K., Zhang, X. C., Michalak, J., Schneider, S., & Margraf, J. (2019). Vegetarian diet and mental health: Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses in culturally diverse samples. Journal of affective disorders248, 147-154.
  • Hibbeln, J. R., Northstone, K., Evans, J., & Golding, J. (2018). Vegetarian diets and depressive symptoms among men. Journal of affective disorders225, 13-17.
  • Sind Veganer eigentlich Veganerinnen?, retrieved 3 February 2020 from

https://vegawatt.de/vegan-leben/sind-veganer-eigentlich-veganerinnen

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Interview with Annett Oehlschläger, author of the book “You can eat stability?!“

After listening to a talk given by Miss Oehlschläger at a conference on bipolar disorder in 2019, and learning how she, as an affected person herself, manages her disorder, I decided to conduct this interview with her to stress the importance of a solid knowledge about one’s disorder, but also about body processes and nutrition. This interview had been conducted in German and translated to English.

Miss Oehlschläger, after living with the diagnosis of a bipolar disorder for many years, you wrote a book named “Stabilität kann man essen?!“ (“You can eat stability?!“) What made you write this book?

Simply speaking: There hasn’t been a book yet which investigated what effect nutrition, exercise, biological rhythm, sleep, and light have on mood and energy fluctuations. During my literature research I was surprised at first that there were so many connections, and I grew angry because I had never heard about this during my psychiatric treatment. It was my wish that other affected people learn about these connections. This was the reason to write this book.

Who is the book written for and what could be reasons to read it?

So first and foremost, it is written for those who are affected by a bipolar disorder, that’s why it is called “Steps for Self-Management”. But it could also be worth reading for people who don’t get along with psychotropic drugs and for people with other psychiatric disorders than those of the bipolar spectrum.

What does “bipolar pilot” exactly mean?

When I created my website, I was looking for a catchy term and while doing this I actually found the term “pilot.” Even though it has nothing to do with the disorder at all at first sight, it is very suitable. A pilot is someone who is helping a non-local to find the right way and that is how I understand my offer. Everybody has to take the journey on his or her own, I can only accompany a part of it. I make an offer and show how to live self-determined and as autonomously as possible with the disorder. With me as an example, I show how to become an expert of my own disorder. I am there for upcoming questions and I offer my experience and my advice.

Would you say that the book is also worth reading for people without a bipolar disorder or for relatives of people with a bipolar disorder or for people with another mental or psychiatric disorder?

Yes, I’d say so. I have been told several times that my explanations are focused on bipolar disorder, but that many connections are shown that basically affect everyone. Everybody has to eat and everybody wants to stay healthy. The things I’m describing don´t only have to do with the bipolar disorder, but also with how to keep the body healthy, and how close body and mind are connected.

In your experience, how do nutrition and psyche relate to each other?

It has always bothered me that the psyche and the body were perceived as something independent and separate from each other. All materials that our body needs, except oxygen, come into our body via food and drinks, and then the body builds it‘s substances from it and produces the necessary energy. Conversely, what I do not ingest and what the body cannot produce itself, or what it cannot process, cannot be built into the cells. My conviction is that the way people eat plays an important role in all chronic diseases, including bipolar disorder. For people with mental disorders the following relation is important: Emotions and thoughts don’t just materialize out of nowhere. They are built in the brain using amino acids and are controlled by messenger substances. This is quite a complex procedure, but it just doesn’t work right without the necessary raw material. Everybody might have already experienced the feeling of well-being after having eaten something sweet, like chocolate. Here, the connection is obvious. To rephrase a saying by Feuerbach: You are not only what you eat, you also feel according to what you have eaten.

Why is the realization that psyche and nutrition are so strongly connected not widespread and an integral part of every therapy or medical consultation?

I often asked myself the same question while I was reading the books. I asked two doctors who helped me with the diet change. One of them is an internist and environmental physician from Rostock, Germany, and he told me that medical students do not learn this. The focus is rather on the treatment of symptoms, mainly using medication. And I have experienced nothing different in psychiatry, symptoms are treated with medication. The vast potential of biochemistry and orthomolecular medicine remains unused. I find this quite regrettable. Additionally, there are guidelines that are set up by professional societies, and each doctor has to treat according to these guidelines. And then, there is also the healthcare system which is growing more and more specialized. This brings certain advantages, no doubt. But especially when it comes to the psyche, in my opinion, you need a holistic approach to sustainably help an affected person.

In your experience, what do exercise and sleep have to do with the psyche in addition to diet?

This has something to do with a human beings’ system, which has evolved over thousands of years. We are adapted to our environment and living conditions that have evolved only very slowly over the thousands of years. The so-called modern progress over the last 200 years brought so many fundamental changes in our living conditions we are not adapted to – yet. Sensitive people react with disturbances in their system. Bipolar disorder is one of them. A basic element of our living condition was regular exercise. The human being is made for walking and not for sitting. The saying “sitting is the new smoking” states that a lack of exercise is similarly unhealthy as smoking is. When we walk, we release endorphins. These are happiness hormones and pain killers, which made it possible for mankind to run long distances. If you move, you brighten up. I find this a very easy way to lift your mood, you just have to get up and do it.

Further, chronobiology has found out that it is important for our well-being to stick to biological rhythms. If you act against these rhythms you risk affecting your health, i.e., sleeping disorders. This is a common symptom of bipolar disorder and other mental conditions. The sleep-wake-cycle is an important pacemaker, such as sunlight. It is not irrelevant when you eat or sleep when you work or regenerate. Regularity stabilizes. Mental stability can be achieved by living according to these rhythms. I do live according to these principles.

And if we are going to be more practically now, what would you say, which food should one eat?

Of course, all of the food I need for a good mood. These foods have to provide all the 47 substances that each body necessarily needs in order to stay healthy: 10 amino acids, omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, 13 vitamins and 22 minerals and trace elements.

However, we don’t eat single substances but complex food. So by selecting my food, this is what I do: If I am aware that drive and mood are dependent on amino acids, then the logical conclusion is that I eat food that contains these. Proteins are built from amino acids. Enhancing your protein intake doesn’t necessarily mean eating more meat. Fish, eggs, and legumes contain protein as well.

Further, many processes in my body require enzymes, co-enzymes and co-factors: This is where vitamins, minerals and trace elements come into play. They are needed so that the substances eaten can be absorbed by the body, and also by the brain. If I know that, then I am aware that I have to eat food that provides these substances – these are mainly vegetables, nuts, seeds, and fruit.

Going shopping at the supermarket, I often get the impression that these foods only account for a small proportion of the vast offer. More dominant are sugar-sweetened beverages, alcohol, packed and conserved foods, bread, bakery products, and candy. We are constantly exposed to these temptations. If you want to eat according to what your brain needs, you can stick to these easy advices:

Don’t consume sweetened beverages, which also include fruit juice and smoothies, because they contain large amounts of sugars. These simple sugars are mood killers.

Don’t buy processed food. You will recognize processed food mainly because it is packaged and contains a lot of food additives. If there are many different ingredients on the list, chances are quite high that there are additives in it that nobody really needs. Their true serving is to make the product either more tasty – using salt, sugar, flavor enhancers, emulsifiers, and the like, or to enhance shelf life by preservative agents or antioxidants, or to make the product more appealing by adding colorants.

The issue with these unnecessary additives is that they harm the gut – in some people more, in some people less. This can lead to a reduced ability to absorb the substances needed, on the one hand, and on the other hand it can happen that the gut gets leaky and unwanted substances can enter the body. This can also lead to sickness. Both affects drive and mood.

Simply speaking, for a good mood and drive I need foods that are as natural as possible, regionally produced, seasonally, and preferably organic. A large part of my nutrition comes from these foods. If I stick to these principles, I take care of a good basis for mental stability.

And what about fat?

Fat is an essential substance, too. We could not survive without fat. If you consider that 60% of our brain’s dry matter is composed of fat, that each cell in our body is coated by a double lipid layer, then one can hardly comprehend this fat phobia which has been going on for many years.

However, there is fat that is beneficial for mood and drive, and there is fat that is unfavorable for the psyche. For thinking, we need a properly functioning of signal conduction in the brain. Our feelings are influenced by our thoughts and the other way round, both are a product of our brain. Both affect our behavior – all of which are very complex processes of the brain.

The cells build those fats into their cell walls that the person ingests. For the membranes to be fluid enough they need a certain composition of fatty acids. Here, the synergy between vitamin D and the omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA play a crucial role. Vitamin D is needed when neurotransmitters are built, and EPA makes sure that the cell membrane is fluid enough so that the neurotransmitter can be spilled into the synaptic cleft. DHA takes care that the receptor at the post synapse can pick up the signal to be transmitted. This is why I take specific care to take up at least 2 grams of fish oil every day.

Would you say that nutrition ultimately plays a greater role than psychotropic drugs in improving the disease?

From my point of view, in an acute crisis, psychotropic drugs are a blessing. I am convinced that I would not be alive anymore today if I hadn’t received medication.

But what’s bugging me is constant medication. I, too, have been told that I have to take psychotropic medication all my life. I have a different point of view today. To stay stable permanently, I only need medication as long until my body is strong enough to stabilize my psyche.

This is a long-lasting, exhausting, and also pricy process. Not everybody manages that. This is why it might be that somebody still needs to take psychotropic medication.

A diet that provides all the substances my body needs adds considerately to strengthen the overall health and also the immune system. That way, one improves one’s overall quality of life, not only the mental stability. In this sense, nutrition plays a bigger role.

Can an improvement of the disorder solely occur through nutrition?

Bipolar disorder is a serious mental disorder with many causes. Stress plays a pivotal role, my reaction towards it just as well, just as my core beliefs. A sole change in diet can’t change anything about that, it takes psychotherapy and psychoeducation. However, I can influence my vulnerability towards stressors through my diet. For example, a certain level of magnesium is important for being able to relax and to stand above things. Magnesium is also called “salt of inner peace”, and for a reason.

Further, the effect of my diet on my mood is influenced by the origin of my food, and what it contains or doesn’t contain anymore. Take selenium for example. This is very important for the thyroid gland and, by the way, enhances your mood. Through the last ice age, it has been washed out of the ground here in Germany. So if I eat local products, they contain less selenium than food from the US, for example.

If I measure my blood composition and see that I lack a certain substance that I can’t properly ingest via my food, I go for food supplements. I don’t manage to get all the nutrients I need through the food I eat.

But an improvement of the mental disorder depends on many more factors. Nutrition is the most important part, in my opinion, because only through nutrition I get the raw material for the production of neurotransmitters. No drug can achieve that.

To clarify which components are important for a good mood and drive, I like to use the metaphor of a jigsaw puzzle, just as in my book. Only when all the pieces are in place, I get a coherent image – that of mental stability. Which pieces I need are quite specific. But it’s worth it to find that out. My puzzle pieces were psychotropic drugs, psychotherapy and psychoeducation at first. Today I don’t need these components anymore. But other factors play a role now: nutrition, exercise, sleep, stress management, self-care, and a meaningful occupation. And also, regular measurements of blood levels to identify imbalances or low levels of substances at an early stage and being able to react promptly. These are my puzzle pieces for stability, so it’s not nutrition alone.

You have already mentioned the keyword “dietary supplements.” Which dietary supplements should one take, or should you take any at all?

Sometimes I get the impression that when it comes to the topic of food supplements, it is often about opinions and factoids rather than scientific facts. Often it is stated that supplements are unnecessary if you eat healthily because then you get everything you need. Or that supplements have a beneficial effect only for the producers. I have believed such statements for a long time before I started having my blood levels measured. My level of vitamin D had been so low I basically didn’t have any of it in my blood. The level of magnesium had been below the reference value, B vitamins had been at the lower level, not to talk about zinc and selenium, and the overall level of protein had been way too low. And at that stage I had been eating healthily, or I had assumed that my nutrition is healthy and contains everything I need. So there had to be something wrong here, or what was the reason for these results?

Today I know that certain essential substances are not available in our food in adequate amounts – or not anymore. Take selenium for example. It is even more dramatically regarding vitamin D. This can be built by the skin, so technically it is not really a vitamin. Experts, such as Prof. Holick from the US, call it a prohormone, because it is associated with more than a thousand of metabolic processes, and more than 2000 of our 23000 genes depend on vitamin D directly or indirectly. Because of the degree of latitude we live in regarding Germany, between October and April the sun is so low we can’t build vitamin D at all. The angle of the sunbeams is below 45 degrees, and so the UVB part of the sunlight doesn’t reach our skin. However, vitamin D reservoirs are depleted after 4 months, so even after I have built up enough vitamin D during the summer it won’t help me get through the winter. Vitamin D is very important for the mood. Once you experience what a difference it makes if you refill such a lack of a substance you stop believing those depreciative statements, even if they come from a doctor.

My recovery started with heightening my vitamin D level. It was at 7ng/ml and today I make sure it stays around 60-70ng/ml. Since I don’t build it appropriately through sun exposure or food I take supplements. So I supplement what I don’t get otherwise if I see that I’m lacking it.

On the other hand, it’s no use just to take anything just because somebody told me it’s good for me. Everybody has his or her individual metabolism. If two persons eat the same food, blood levels can differ. So supplements are very helpful if they are taken specifically and for a purpose.

People with mood fluctuations or mental issues should know their level of vitamin D, especially if they take psychotropic drugs because these drugs deplete the body’s vitamin D reservoirs. B vitamins are vital because they enable the building of serotonin, the happiness hormone, from tryptophane. B vitamins act as co-factors here; this is why I recommend eating a handful of nuts every day because they are full of B vitamins.

It also needs omega-3 fatty acids, magnesium, iron, zinc, but describing this here would go too far. But I am describing this in my book in detail.

As a last question, which message do you definitely want to transmit to the readers with this interview? Everybody should be worth it him- or herself to stabilize oneself by following a healthy diet. For me, measuring my blood levels is part of it, so really going to the lab to have your status determined and when you add supplements to your diet, to see what happens. And I am convinced that if you fill up such deficiencies, then everyone will experience his or her own miracle, just as I have experienced it. Because nobody believed that one can become psychologically stable by just a change in diet. Even “only” an improvement of the quality of life is an achievement in my opinion. I know enough sufferers who take psychotropic drugs, but still take dietary supplements such as omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin D because they improve their life situation. And that is actually what we want, isn’t it?

Miss Oehlschläger, we that you very much for this interview!

About the author: Annett Oehlschläger has been diagnosed with Bipolar Disorder when she was 47 years old. She has been solely occupied with this disorder for eight years and has been to psychiatric hospitals 24 times during these years. Through psychotropic medication and many hours of psychotherapy, the bipolar phases got shorter and the dose of medication could be reduced – however, Miss Oehlschläger still didn’t really become mentally stable. She set out to search for alternatives. Through a diet and lifestyle change and by tackling her vitamin and mineral deficiencies she has been managing to become stable for six years now. This made her write a book called „Stabilität kann man essen?!“ (“You can eat stability?!” – available in German) which has been sold more than 3000 times so far.

About the interviewer: Anne Siegl, PhD is a psychologist and neuroscientist at Klinik für Psychiatrie, Psychosomatik und Psychotherapie Universitätsklinikum, Frankfurt am Main, Germany. She is researching effects of nutrition on psychological well-being.

This interview has been conducted and translated together with Laura Müller, B.Sc. Laura Friederike Müller, B.Sc., is a Student of Psychology at the Fresenius University of applied Sciences in Frankfurt am Main. At the time of the interview she has been doing an internship in the Eat2beNice project group at the Dept. of Psychiatry, Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, Frankfurt, studying the effects of nutrition and lifestyle on mental health.

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According to the food and agriculture organization, about 1 billion people in the world were living in hunger or insecurity in the year 2010 (1). Additionally, 5 to 15 % of people in industrial countries experience food insecurity which makes it all the more a public health concern in Europe (2).

But, what exactly is food insecurity about?

Food insecurity means that the access to sufficient food, meeting the dietary and cultural needs and the individual food preferences for a healthy and active life is not possible. It is not only a lack of food, what`s more, is the feeling that the preferred food supply is not available or may be threatened in the future, which has, in turn, an effect on the eating behavior. That means even if food is sufficient, people may be food insecure, but not necessarily undernourished. Two risk groups are students, who do not have the money for buying their preferred food, and refugees, who can´t buy their traditional food in their new home towns. Food insecurity can result in a reduction on micro-and macronutrition intake. Macronutrients are large food components that the body needs to maintain its metabolism; it includes lipids (fats), sugars (carbohydrates) and proteins. Micronutritions, like vitamins, minerals (such as calcium or magnesium), trace elements (such as iron and zinc), are essential because, without them, numerous normal functions such as growth or energy production could not take place.

Effects on mental health

Food insecurity is also found more often in families with low social economic status (4). Researchers have found that food insecurity caused an increase of depression and anxiety symptoms (3). Furthermore the uncertainty of having food in the future produced stress and created desperation and hopelessness in the families. They perceived the situation as shameful and resigned or used drugs and alcohol to compensate. In addition to this ,children from food insecure families were also more likely to develop symptoms of depression/ anxiety, aggression and hyperactivity/inattention (2). However, when you control for many demographical and psychological variables such as immigrant status, family structure and income and paternal depression, only increased impulsive behavior and inattention seem to be specifically linked to food insecurity Another factor is maternal mental health. It has been shown that food insecurity is especially bad for children’s development if the mother has additional mental health problems like depression, domestic violence and psychosis.

Further insights can be derived from Canadian students (5). Here are financial constraints a primary contributing factor. It represents a barrier because often students can´t afford to buy qualitative and expensive food. Another important factor is insufficient time because the effort to buy, prepare and cook healthy meals takes time and requires planning. It may also be the limited access to culturally appropriate food. This could be a barrier especially for people from other countries, who don´t have the opportunity to buy their traditional food and spices in local supermarkets. In urban areas, more exotic and international food supply is possible, due to the higher demand. The consequences for students were feelings of shame, frustration and loneliness. Some have felt socially isolated, and in general the food insecurity was associated with high psychological stress. Nonetheless the students in the reports believed that the situation is temporary and that after university life gets better in terms of food quantity and quality. For now they accepted the current situation.

So overall, food insecurity may occur in different social classes, with different reasons and effects of varying intensity. It`s interesting to see that it can occur in developing countries and rich countries, and that it can have an influence on whole families and children of food insecure families and students. More studies about people with cultural issues (e.g. refugees) are needed.

So, if you have the chance:

Buy the food you prefer and take time for preparing your meal,                      to live your life as healthy as you want it to be!

REFERENCES

(1) Cole, S. M.; Gelson, T. (2011). The effect of food insecurity on mental health: Panel evidence from rural Zambia. Social Science & Medicine. 73 (7)1071-1079.

(2) Melchior M.; Chastang J.- F.; Falissard B.; Galera, C.; Tremblay, R.E.; Cote, S.M., Boivin, M. (2012). Food insecurity and children’s mental health: a prospective birth cohort study. PLoS One 7 (12).

(3) Weaver, L. J.; Hadley. C. (2009) Moving Beyond Hunger and Nutrition: A Systematic Review of the Evidence Linking Food Insecurity and Mental Health in Developing Countries, Ecology of Food and Nutrition, 48(4), 263-284.

(4) Melchior, M.; Caspi, A.; Howard, L.M.; Ambler, A.P.; Bolton, H.; Mountain, N; Moffitt, T.E. (2009) Mental health context of food insecurity: a representative cohort of families with young children. Pediatrics, 124 (4).

(5) Hattangadi, N.; Vogel, E.; Carroll, L. J.; Cote, T. (2019). “Everybody I Know Is Always Hungry…But Nobody Asks Why”: University Students, Food Insecurity and Mental Health. Sustainability. 11 (6).

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The popularity of yoga practice has risen sharply in recent years. In 2006, already 2.6 million people in Germany practiced yoga regularly (1). The arguments for yoga are widely spread in the population, for example the energy and immune function are increased and back pain, arthritis and stress are relieved (2). For others, the practice of yoga is an important factor in doing something good for themselves, while for others the discipline and control of the body is more in focus.

But, where does yoga come from?
The yoga tradition originates from India, the religion of Buddhism, and has a philosophical background with original roots reaching back over 2000 to 5000 years. The term “yoga” comes from the word “yui”, which has its origin in Sanskrit, a very ancient Indian language, and means “unite”. Accordingly, yoga refers to the union of body, mind and soul (3).

What exactly does a yoga practice involve?
In western countries the focus is especially on the Asana practice, the postures. The postures can be lying, sitting or standing and should be performed as attentively as possible. All Asanas have associated Sanskrit names and also pictorial names such as the Cobra (Bhujangasana) or the down looking dog (Adho Mukha Svanasana). Further essential elements are the breathing techniques (Pranayama), where the breath is consciously directed (e.g. Kapalabathi, alternative breathing) and the meditation (Dhyana), where the mind is consciously directed, by calming down, insight can be attained and a state of deep relaxation can be achieved.

But, can yoga really have a positive effect on mental and physical health?
In view of the study and literature available, YES! A meta-analysis results that yoga is effective as a complementary treatment for psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (4).

Yoga can have a positive influence on the reduction of depression symptoms, the reduction of stress and anxiety, and can lead to an increase in self-love, awareness and life satisfaction (5, 6). On the physiological level, the results can also be found in the reduction of the stress hormone cortisol (7).

In the case of anxiety disorders, relaxation is a central component of yoga practice. Clients lack confidence, courage and stability, so that autogenic training, progressive muscle relaxation and deep relaxation can be beneficial.

In the presence of eating disorders, yoga can make an important contribution to increasing body satisfaction, awareness and receptivity as well as reducing self-objectivity and psychological symptoms (8). Prevention programs with concentration on yoga appear promising, as body satisfaction and social self-concept have been increased and bulimic symptoms reduced.

Conclusion: The integration into the health system for prevention and complementary therapy seems to be reasonable and as Mind Body Therapy, integrated into the treatment concept, positive effects on mental health can be achieved. In addition to body awareness, yoga concentrates on personal awareness and self-love and has an effect on the emotional, mental, cognitive and physical body levels. The yoga classes can be specifically adapted to the needs of the participants and can be set up in a disorder-specific way.

Advantages of yoga as a complementary therapy:
– Lower costs

– At the same time positive effect on the body
– No side effects
– Preventive and therapeutic support
– Less time required
– New contacts

What do you need to consider?
1. Choice of Yoga-Studio (atmosphere, costs, course offers)

2. Yoga teacher (e.g. education of teacher, authentic)
3. Yoga style (discover your preference, adapt to your daily state, examples follow)

– Vinyasa = flowing asanas, activating, breath and asanas in harmony
– Hatha = origin, breathing exercises, meditation, gentle asanas
– Ashtanga = powerful, always constant flowing sequences, condition
– Yin = relaxing, longer lasting asanas, calm, passive
– Acro Yoga = combination of acrobatics and yoga
– Kundalini = spiritual, mantras singing, meditation, energies

REFERENCES

  1. Klatte, R., Pabst, S., Beelmann, A. & Rosendahl, J. S. (2016). The efficacy of body-oriented yoga in mental disorders. Deutsches Arzteblatt international, 113 (20), 359. https://doi.org/10.3238/arztebl.2016.0195.
  2. Cramer, H., Ward, L., Steel, A., Lauche, R., Dobos, G. & Zhang, Y. (2016). Prevalence, Patterns, and Predictors of Yoga Use: Results of a U.S. Nationally Representative Survey. American journal of preventive medicine, 50 (2), 230–235.
  3. Jaquemart, P. & Elkefi, S. (1995). Yoga als Therapie. Lehrbuch für die Arzt und Naturheilpraxis. Augsburg: Weltbild Verlag.
  4. Cabral P, Meyer HB, Ames D. (2011). Effectiveness of yoga therapy as a complementary treatment for major psychiatric disorders: A meta-analysis. Prim Care Companion CNS Disord. 2011;13:pii: PCC10r01068.
  5. Ponte, S. B., Lino, C., Tavares, B., Amaral, B., Bettencourt, A. L., Nunes, T. et al. (2019). Yoga in primary health care. A quasi-experimental study to access the effects on quality of life and psychological distress. Complementary therapies in clinical practice, 34, 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctcp.2018.10.012
  6. Snaith, N., Schultz, T., Proeve, M. & Rasmussen, P. (2018). Mindfulness, self-compassion, anxiety and depression measures in South Australian yoga participants: implications for designing a yoga intervention. Complementary therapies in clinical practice, 32, 92–99. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctcp.2018.05.009
  7. Bershadsky, S., Trumpfheller, L., Kimble, H. B., Pipaloff, D. & Yim, I. S. (2014). The effect of prenatal Hatha yoga on affect, cortisol and depressive symptoms. Complementary therapies in clinical practice, 20 (2), 106–113. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctcp.2014.01.002
  8. Neumark-Sztainer, D. (2014). Yoga and eating disorders: is there a place for yoga in the prevention and treatment of eating disorders and disordered eating behaviours? Advances in eating disorders (Abingdon, England ), 2 (2), 136 145. https://doi.org/10.1080/21662630.2013.862369

 

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This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 728018

New Brain Nutrition is a project and brand of Eat2BeNice, a consortium of 18 European University Hospitals throughout the continent.

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