When exposed to UVB-radiation, the human body produces vitamin D out of cholesterol. Vitamin D is therefore also known as the “sunshine vitamin”. Healthy vitamin D levels in people are thought to play a role in preventing several health problems, such as cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, mood disorders, diabetes and other autoimmune diseases [1]. In a previous post, Dr. Faraone also outlines the association between vitamin D and ADHD in children and adolescents [2]. In most western countries, the beneficial effects of vitamin D are well-established. Pregnant women are even advised to add vitamin D supplementation to their diet to stimulate the fetal growth [3].

People that live further from the equator, have fewer hours of UVB-radiation and are more prone to vitamin D insufficiency. For example, residents of northern Canada and Norway have very little UVB exposure during November through February. During those months, vitamin D intake is even more important.

Residents of the arctic circle, whose families have lived there for generations after generations, have diets that are traditionally relatively high in vitamin D. The diet contains among other things: liver, trout, Atlantic salmon, seals and whales. As younger generations gradually shift away from the traditional diet, vitamin D insufficiency becomes more common among northern residents [5]. It is yet unclear if the decline in traditional diets will be accompanied by a rise in vitamin D insufficiency-related health problems. However, it is well established that several of these health problems have been uncommon among northern residents in the past [6].

Research shows that in countries further away from the equator, vitamin D levels are steady with regular UVB-exposure: Going outdoors around noon, sun bed use (with caution) and sun seeking holidays. And in the UVB-scarce months, regular vitamin D intake becomes in particular important to prevent from low vitamin D levels and its possible consequences [4].

References

[1] Wessels I, & Rink L (2019) . Micronutrients in autoimmune diseases: possible therapeutic benefits of zinc and vitamin D. J Nutr Biochem. Oct 30;77:108240. doi:10.1016/j.jnutbio.2019.108240. [Epub ahead of print]

[2] https://newbrainnutrition.com/adhd-and-vitamin-d-deficiency/

[3] Gallo S, McDermid JM, Al-Nimr RI, Hakeem R, Moreschi JM, Pari-Keener M, Stahnke B, Papoutsakis C, Handu D, Cheng FW (2019). Vitamin D Supplementation during Pregnancy: An Evidence Analysis Center Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. J Acad Nutr Diet. Oct 25. pii: S2212-2672(19)30849-4. doi: 10.1016/j.jand.2019.07.002. [Epub ahead of print]

[4] Brustad M1, Edvardsen K, Wilsgaard T, Engelsen O, Aksnes L, Lund E (2007). Seasonality of UV-radiation and vitamin D status at 69 degrees north. Photochem Photobiol Sci. 2007 Aug;6(8):903-8. Epub 2007 Jun 27.

[5] El Hayek Fares J, & Weiler HA(2016). Implications of the nutrition transition for vitamin D intake and status in Aboriginal groups in the Canadian Arctic. Nutr Rev. 2016 Sep;74(9):571-83. doi: 10.1093/nutrit/nuw020.

[6] Dewailly E Blanchet C Lemieux S et al (2001). n-3 Fatty acids and cardiovascular disease risk factors among the Inuit of Nunavik . Am J Clin Nutr. 74 : 464 – 473 .[/st_text][/st_column][/st_row]

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Yoga practice has become very popular in the last two centuries. In most western countries, yoga studios are booming. For example, Dutch practitioners are said to spent 325 million euros per year on yoga classes, clothes and events.

In scientific research, yoga and its beneficial effects on physical and mental health, have also become a serious topic of interest. In a previous post, Hannah Kurts had already outlined the positive effects of yoga for several psychiatric disorders (https://newbrainnutrition.com/how-to-help-mental-health-with-yoga/)

Recently, the effects of yoga on cognitive performance and behavioral problems in 5-year old children have been examined. A group of Tunisian researchers offered 5-year old children in kindergarten a 12-week yoga program, regular physical education, or no kind of physical activities.

They found that this kind of kindergarten-based yoga practice, had significant positive effects on visual attention, visuo-motor precision and symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsivity, in comparison to regular physical activities or no physical activities [1].

One might wonder: Quiet and peaceful yoga exercises with a bunch of energetic 5-year olds? How would that even work?

The yoga they offered in this project was a 30-minute routine, instead of a more regular 90-min session: 5 minutes of warming up, doing jogging, jumping, stretching. Next, 15 minutes of the well-known yoga postures, standing, sitting, flexing. Next, 5 minutes of breathing techniques and lastly, 5 minutes of yogic games, to train memory, awareness and creativity. And they practiced only twice a week.

It seems very promising that such a curtailed version of yoga practice can have positive effects on attention, executive functions, and behavioral control, which are all skills that are vital to good academic performance [2][3].

In some European and North-American countries, the idea of school-based yoga practice isn’t so revolutionary anymore. France, Italy, Brazil, and Canada have recognized yoga practice in its school curriculum. Italy seems to be the school-yoga champion: Classroom-based yoga is performed in all Italian schools since 2000 [4].

REFERENCES
[1] Jarraya S, Wagner M, Jarraya M and Engel FA (2019) 12 Weeks of Kindergarten-Based Yoga Practice Increases Visual Attention, Visual-Motor Precision and Decreases Behavior of Inattention and Hyperactivity in 5-Year-Old Children. Front. Psychol. 10:796. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00796

[2] Chaya, M. S., Nagendra, H., Selvam, S., Kurpad, A., and Srinivasan, K. (2012). Effect of yoga on cognitive abilities in schoolchildren from a socioeconomically disadvantaged background: a randomized controlled study. J. Altern. Complement. Med. 18, 1161–1167. doi: 10.1089/acm. 2011.0579

[3] Verma, A., Uddhav, S., Ghanshyam Thakur, S., Devarao, D., Ranjit, K., and Bhogal, S. (2014). The effect of yoga practices on cognitive development in rural residential school children in India. Natl. J. Lab. Med. 3, 15–19.

[4] Flak, M. (2003). Recherche Sur Le Yoga Dans L’éducation. 3ème Millénaire: Spiritualité – Connaissance De Soi – Non-Dualité – Méditation, 125. Available at: http://www.rye-yoga.fr/ (accessed July 15, 2018).

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When Alice’s mother first contacted our team to get more information on the dietary intervention at New Brain Nutrition, she mentioned that her daughter seems to be on edge all the time. On a typical day, Alice would be triggered easily over seemingly small things and stay upset for a long time. She told us that these emotional problems caused not only very strained and cheerless moments on the weekends and evenings, they also interfered notably with Alice’s social life. In between her angry or sad moments, Alice seems to be a perfectly happy and energetic 11-year old. Alice’s attention problems didn’t obstruct a healthy didactic development since she started ADHD-medication. However, the emotional problems were still present and seemed to cause severe impairment in social interactions, within the family and with peers. Therefore, her mother asked: Could we please try a dietary intervention to see if Alice’s nutrition may play a role in these problems?

Faraone[1] distinguishes two features in these kind of emotional problems: Emotional Impulsivity and Deficient Emotional Self-Regulation. Some children may experience explosive anger but also recover quickly from it. These children experience high Emotional Impulsivity but low Deficient Emotional Self-Regulation. Alice however, based on her mother’s narrative, seems to experience both high Emotional Impulsivity and high Deficient Emotional Self-Regulation.

The second week into the Elimination Diet treatment, the researcher checks in with the family: She’s still edgy and irritable for most of the time, her mother says, but she seems to break out of it a whole lot sooner. The other day her brother Daniel came home, telling Alice he ate lots of non-elimination diet snacks at his friend’s house. Understandably, Alice became upset but it didn’t last as long as her parents expected. In other words: The Emotional Impulsivity hadn’t decreased yet, but the Deficient Emotional Self-Regulation had.

By the end of the first 5 weeks of the dietary intervention, Alice’s parents reported a convincing decrease in emotion regulation problems. The teacher also reported that the attention problems had stabilized, as much as they did with the ADHD-medication that Alice had before. The family decided to continue the Elimination Diet and start with the re-introduction phase. Every two weeks a new product was re-introduced to see if this may elicit symptoms. This was probably the most interesting period for the family, as emotion regulation problems and attention problems arose and subsided over different phases.

After one year, Alice and her family had figured out a set of foods that, when eliminated from her diet, helped diminishing both the attention problems and emotional problems. Alice is less responsive to emotional triggers and more balanced during social interactions. Alice’s personalized diet or personalized nutrition is based on her experiences and symptoms during the dietary intervention. Her mother is very glad that they discovered this lifestyle intervention as an alternative to their previous treatment with ADHD-medication.

Writers note: This is the story of one individual participating in the New Brain Nutrition study. Evaluating the role of nutrition in treatment of mental health with scientific evidence is part of our future.

More information can be found in [1] Faraone S.V., Rostain A.L., Blader J., Busch B., Childress A.C., Connor D.F., & Newcorn J.H. (2018). Practitioner Review: Emotional dysregulation in attention‐deficit/hyperactivity disorder – implications for clinical recognition and intervention. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12899

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This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 728018

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