A little while ago, this blog featured an entry by Annick Bosch on the TRACE study, an amazing intervention study using the Elimination Diet to treat ADHD in kids (https://newbrainnutrition.com/adhd-and-elimination-diet/). Very shortly summarized, the Elimination Diet entails that participants can only eat a very restricted set of foodstuffs for several weeks, which can greatly reduce the number of ADHD symptoms in some kids. Subsequently, new foodstuffs are added back into the diet one by one, all the time checking that ADHD symptoms do not return. This ensures that every child for which the Elimination Diet proves successful ends up with a unique diet which suppresses their ADHD symptoms.

Now this is a fascinating study, since it indicates a direct influence of diet on ADHD behavior. What we know from the neurobiology of ADHD, is that it is caused by a myriad of relatively small changes in the structure, connectivity and functioning of several brain networks 1. For the most common treatments of ADHD, like medication with methylphenidate 2, we can quite accurately see the changes these interventions have on brain functioning. However, for the Elimination Diet, this has not been studied before at all. This is why we are now starting with the TRACE-MRI study, where kids that participate in a diet intervention in the TRACE program, are also asked to join for two sessions in an MRI scanner. Once before the start of the diet, and once again after 5 weeks, when the strictest phase of the Elimination Diet concludes. In the MRI scanner, we will look at the structure of the brain, at the connectivity of the brain, and at the functioning of the brain using two short psychological tasks. We made a short vlog detailing the experience of some of our first volunteers for this MRI session.

 

 

With the addition of this MRI session, we hope to be able to see the changes in brain structure and function over the first 5 weeks of the diet intervention. This will help us establish a solid biological foundation of how diet can influence the brain in general, and ADHD symptoms specifically. It can also show us if the effect of the Elimination Diet is found in the same brain networks and systems which respond to medication treatment. And lastly, we can see if there is a difference in the brains for those participants for whom the diet has a strong effect versus those where the diet does little or nothing to improve their ADHD symptoms. This can then help us identify for which people a dietary intervention would be a good alternative to standard treatment.

We will update you on the TRACE-MRI study and on the developments in this field right here on this blog!

 

REFERENCES
Faraone, S. V et al. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder ­­­. Nat. Rev. Dis. Prim. 1, (2015).

Konrad, K., Neufang, S., Fink, G. R. & Herpertz-Dahlmann, B. Long-term effects of methylphenidate on neural networks associated with executive attention in children with ADHD: results from a longitudinal functional MRI study. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry 46, 1633–41 (2007).

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We have talked before about how ADHD has been associated with obesity and the mechanisms implicated on it. I would like to explain more about this important subject so you can understand what dietary changes you can make to avoid the risk of weight gain. Most of the authors attribute the presence of obesity in ADHD individuals to disorder eating patterns, especially overeating, that means that these people are eating a higher amount of calories per day in comparison of individuals without ADHD. When a person consumes more calories or food than their body needs they start to gaining weight and this happens to all kind of people, I’m not talking only about those who have ADHD, and that becomes a health problem.

Nevertheless, there is a recent study that suggests that ADHD-obesity relationship was linked to unhealthy food choices, rather than overeating behavior (1). This means that ADHD individuals are eating the same amounts of calories per day as healthy ones, but their food choices are not good enough to meet the dietary recommendations and can lead to nutritional deficiencies that have been observed on these patients (2,3). These kinds of patients tend to eat more processed meat, unhealthy snacks, and refined cereals; instead of consuming healthy food choices like vegetables, fruits, whole grains, nuts, and fish.

We can suggest that this problem it may be due to the fact that there is a lack of information related to nutrition, so it is easy to get confused on which food products are healthy and which are not.

When you go to the supermarket, you will find a lot of food options that have a label that says “light” or “healthy,” and you may buy them without analyzing if they are genuinely healthy.

So the question is “how can you know if a product is healthy or not?”

First of all, you should opt to buy fresh products such as fruits, vegetables and fish (foods that are rich in vitamins and minerals needed to maintain our mental health in good shape). And avoid consuming fast, packaged or canned food because these kinds of products contain a lot of sodium, sugar, fat, preservatives, additives and components that in high amounts can lead to health issues.

Second, if you need to buy food products that are packaged or canned, you should be able to read and understand the nutritional information and ingredients before you buy them to be sure they are the healthiest options on the market.

Here I share an example on what to search on nutrition facts labels of food products to make the right selection.

For more information on how to understand and use the nutrition facts label you can visit: www.fda.gov/food/labelingnutrition/ucm274593.htm#see3

This was co-authored by Josep Antoni Ramos-Quiroga, MD PhD psychiatrist and Head of Department of Psychiatry at Hospital Universitari Vall d’Hebron in Barcelona, Spain. He is also a professor at Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona.

REFERENCES
1. Hershko S, Aronis A, Maeir A, Pollak Y. Dysfunctional Eating Patterns of Adults With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. J Nerv Ment Dis [Internet]. 2018;206(11):870–4.

2. Kotsi E, Kotsi E, Perrea DN. Vitamin D levels in children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a meta-analysis. Atten Defic Hyperact Disord [Internet]. Springer Vienna; 2018.

3. Landaas ET, Aarsland TIM, Ulvik A, Halmøy A, Ueland PM, Haavik J. Vitamin levels in adults with ADHD. Br J Psychiatry Open [Internet]. 2016;2(6):377–84.

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Increasing evidence is showing that the gut microbiota can alter the brain and behavior, and thus may play a role in the development of psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism and schizophrenia.

Animal models are a useful tool to study this mechanism. For example, germ-free (GF) mice, which have never been exposed to microorganisms, are compared with mice exposed to microorganisms, known as conventional colonized mice (CC). Recent studies have schizophrenia and autismreported that GF animals show increased response to stress, as well as reduced anxiety and memory. In most cases, these alterations are restricted to males, in which there are higher incidence rates of neurodevelopmental disorders compared with females.

Mice, like humans, are a social species and are used to study social behavior. A recent study compared GF and CC mice using different sociability tests. GF mice showed impairments in social behavior compared with CC mice, particularly in males. Interestingly, they demonstrate that social deficits can be reversed by bacterial colonization of  the GF gut (GFC), achieving normal social behavior.

Microbiota seem to be crucial for social behaviors, including social motivation and preference for social novelty. Microbiota also regulate repetitive behaviors, characteristic of several disorders such as autism and schizophrenia.

Bacterial colonization can change brain function and behavior, suggesting that microbial-based interventions in later life could improve social impairments and be a useful tool to effect the symptoms of these disorders.

This blog was co-authored by Noèlia Fernàndez and Judit Cabana

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When Alice’s mother first contacted our team to get more information on the dietary intervention at New Brain Nutrition, she mentioned that her daughter seems to be on edge all the time. On a typical day, Alice would be triggered easily over seemingly small things and stay upset for a long time. She told us that these emotional problems caused not only very strained and cheerless moments on the weekends and evenings, they also interfered notably with Alice’s social life. In between her angry or sad moments, Alice seems to be a perfectly happy and energetic 11-year old. Alice’s attention problems didn’t obstruct a healthy didactic development since she started ADHD-medication. However, the emotional problems were still present and seemed to cause severe impairment in social interactions, within the family and with peers. Therefore, her mother asked: Could we please try a dietary intervention to see if Alice’s nutrition may play a role in these problems?

Faraone[1] distinguishes two features in these kind of emotional problems: Emotional Impulsivity and Deficient Emotional Self-Regulation. Some children may experience explosive anger but also recover quickly from it. These children experience high Emotional Impulsivity but low Deficient Emotional Self-Regulation. Alice however, based on her mother’s narrative, seems to experience both high Emotional Impulsivity and high Deficient Emotional Self-Regulation.

The second week into the Elimination Diet treatment, the researcher checks in with the family: She’s still edgy and irritable for most of the time, her mother says, but she seems to break out of it a whole lot sooner. The other day her brother Daniel came home, telling Alice he ate lots of non-elimination diet snacks at his friend’s house. Understandably, Alice became upset but it didn’t last as long as her parents expected. In other words: The Emotional Impulsivity hadn’t decreased yet, but the Deficient Emotional Self-Regulation had.

By the end of the first 5 weeks of the dietary intervention, Alice’s parents reported a convincing decrease in emotion regulation problems. The teacher also reported that the attention problems had stabilized, as much as they did with the ADHD-medication that Alice had before. The family decided to continue the Elimination Diet and start with the re-introduction phase. Every two weeks a new product was re-introduced to see if this may elicit symptoms. This was probably the most interesting period for the family, as emotion regulation problems and attention problems arose and subsided over different phases.

After one year, Alice and her family had figured out a set of foods that, when eliminated from her diet, helped diminishing both the attention problems and emotional problems. Alice is less responsive to emotional triggers and more balanced during social interactions. Alice’s personalized diet or personalized nutrition is based on her experiences and symptoms during the dietary intervention. Her mother is very glad that they discovered this lifestyle intervention as an alternative to their previous treatment with ADHD-medication.

Writers note: This is the story of one individual participating in the New Brain Nutrition study. Evaluating the role of nutrition in treatment of mental health with scientific evidence is part of our future.

More information can be found in [1] Faraone S.V., Rostain A.L., Blader J., Busch B., Childress A.C., Connor D.F., & Newcorn J.H. (2018). Practitioner Review: Emotional dysregulation in attention‐deficit/hyperactivity disorder – implications for clinical recognition and intervention. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12899

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Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopment disorder characterized by inattention or hyperactivity–impulsivity, or both. It might seem paradoxical, but many studies indicate that individuals with a diagnosis of ADHD suffer from overweight and obesity. Therefore, it is important to understand the underlying mechanism that put individuals with ADHD at risk for obesity.

 Evidence from within-individual study
A systematic review and meta-analysis (1) based on 728,136 individuals from 42 studies, suggested a significant association between ADHD and obesity both in children/adolescents and adults. The pooled prevalence of obesity was increased by about 70% in adults with ADHD and 40% in children with ADHD compared with individuals without ADHD. However, due to the lack of longitudinal and genetically-informative studies, the meta-analysis was unable to explain the exact direction of association and the underlying etiologic mechanisms. There are several potential explanations:

  • ADHD causing obesity: The impulsivity and inattention components of ADHD might lead to disordered eating patterns and poor planning lifestyles, and further caused weight gain.
  • Obesity causing ADHD: Factors associated with obesity, for example dietary intake, might lead to ADHD-like symptoms through the microbiota-gut-brain axis.
  • ADHD and obesity may share etiological factors: ADHD and obesity may share dopaminergic dysfunctions underpinning reward deficiency processing. So the same biological mechanism may lead to both ADHD and obesity. This is difficult to investigate within individuals, but family studies can help to test this hypothesis.

We will further investigate these possibilities in the Eat2beNICE research project by using both perspective cohort study and twin studies.

Evidence from a recent within-family study
Recently, a population-based familial co-aggregation study in Sweden (2) was conducted to explore the role of shared familial risk factors (e.g. genetic variants, family disease history) in the association between ADHD and obesity. They identified 523,237 full siblings born during 1973–2002 for the 472,735 index males in Sweden, and followed them until December 3, 2009. The results suggest that having a sibling with overweight/obesity is a risk factor for ADHD. This makes it likely that biological factors (that are shared between family members) increase the risk for both ADHD and obesity.

Evidence from across-generation study
Given that both ADHD and obesity are highly heritable complex conditions, across-generation studies may also advance the understanding of the link between ADHD and obesity.

A population-based cohort study (3) based on a Swedish nationwide sample of 673,632individuals born during 1992-2004, was performed to explore the association between maternal pre-pregnancy obesity and risk of ADHD in offspring. The sibling-comparison study design was used to test the role of shared familial factors for the potential association. The results suggest that the association between maternal pre-pregnancy obesity and risk of ADHD in offspring might be largely explained by shared familial factors, for example, genetic factors transmitted from mother to child that contribute to both maternal pre-pregnancy obesity and ADHD.

Together, based on previous evidence from various study designs, there is evidence to suggest that the association between ADHD and obesity mainly is caused by shared etiological factors. However, future studies on different population are still needed to further test these findings.

REFERENCES:
1. Cortese S, Moreira-Maia CR, St Fleur D, Morcillo-Penalver C, Rohde LA, Faraone SV. Association Between ADHD and Obesity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. The American journal of psychiatry. 2016;173(1):34-43.

2. Chen Q, Kuja-Halkola R, Sjolander A, Serlachius E, Cortese S, Faraone SV, et al. Shared familial risk factors between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and overweight/obesity – a population-based familial coaggregation study in Sweden. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2017;58(6):711-8.

3. Chen Q, Sjolander A, Langstrom N, Rodriguez A, Serlachius E, D’Onofrio BM, et al. Maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index and offspring attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a population-based cohort study using a sibling-comparison design. Int J Epidemiol. 2014;43(1):83-90.

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Why 12 genetic markers for ADHD are exciting news for New Brain Nutrition

We are finally here: for the first time, genome-wide significant markers are identified that increase the risk for Attention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). This research was conducted by an international consortium of more than 200 experts on genetics and ADHD, and includes several researchers that are also involved in our Eat2beNICE project (the scientific basis of this New Brain Nutrition website). The findings were recently published in the prestigious journal “Nature Genetics” and will greatly advance the field of ADHD genetics research.

Why is this finding so important?

The genetics of ADHD are very complex. While ADHD is highly heritable, there are likely to be thousands of genes that contribute to the disorder. Each variant individually increases the risk by only a tiny fraction. To discover these variants, you therefore need incredibly large samples. Only then can you determine which variants are linked to ADHD. The now published study by Ditte Demontis and her team combined data from many different databases and studies, together including more than 55,000 individuals of whom over 22,000 had an ADHD diagnosis.

We can now be certain that the twelve genetic markers contribute to the risk of developing ADHD. Their influence is however very small, so these markers by themselves can’t tell if someone will have ADHD. What’s interesting for the researchers is that none of these markers were identified before in much smaller genetic studies of ADHD. So this provides many new research questions to further investigate the biological mechanisms of ADHD. For instance, several of the markers point to genes that are involved in brain development and neuronal communication.

Why are our researchers excited about this?

A second important finding from the study is that the genetic variants were not specific to ADHD, but overlapped with risk of lower education, higher risk of obesity, increased BMI, and type-2 diabetes. If genetic variants increase both your risk for mental health problems such as ADHD, and for nutrition-related problems such as obesity and type-2 diabetes, then there could be a shared biological mechanism that ties this all together.

We think that this mechanism is located in the communication between the gut and the brain. A complex combination of genetic and environmental factors influence this brain-gut communication, which leads to differences in behaviour, metabolism and (mental) health.genetic markers for adhd

The microorganisms in your gut play an important role in the interaction between your genes and outside environmental influences (such as stress, illness or your diet). Now that we know which genes are important in ADHD, we can investigate how their functioning is influenced by environmental factors. For instance, gut microorganisms can produce certain metabolites that interact with these genes.

The publication by Ditte Demontis and her co-workers is therefore not only relevant for the field of ADHD genetics, but brings us one step closer to understanding the biological factors that influence our mental health and wellbeing.

Further Reading

Demontis et al. (2018) Discovery of the first genome-wide significant risk loci for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Nature Genetics. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41588-018-0269-7

The first author of the paper, Ditte Demontis, also wrote a blog about the publication. You can read it here: https://mind-the-gap.live/2018/12/10/the-first-risk-genes-for-adhd-has-been-identified/

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Breaking news: It has long been assumed that the gut and the brain communicate not only via a slow, hormonal pathway, but that there must be an additional, faster association between gut and brain. Melanie Maya Kelberer and her colleagues from Duke University, NC, now managed to detect this connection. Their paper has just been published in the renowned journal ‘Science’.

By researching a mouse model, they were able to show that the gut and the brain are connected via one single synapse. This is how it works: A cell in the gut (the so-called enteroendocrine cell) transfers its information to a nerve ending just outside the gut. At the connecting nerve ending (the synapse), the neurotransmitter glutamate – the most important excitatory transmitter in the nervous system – passes on the information about our nutrition to small nerve endings of the vagal nerve, which spreads from the brain to the intestines.

Vagal nerveBy travelling along this vagal nerve, the information from the gut reaches the brainstem within milliseconds. The authors now state that a new name is needed for the enteroendocrine cells, now that they have been shown to be way more than that. The name ‘neuropod cells’ has been suggested. The authors interpret their findings as such, that this rapid connection between the gut and the brain helps the brain to make sense of what has been eaten. Through back-signalling, the brain might also influence the gut. In sum, this finding is an important step towards a better understanding of how the gut and the brain communicate. Findings such as this one help us to find ways to positively influence our brain states and our mental health by our food choices.

Read the original paper here: http://science.sciencemag.org/content/361/6408/eaat5236.long

Kaelberer, M.M., Buchanan, K. L., Klein, M. E., Barth, B. B., Montoya, M. M., Shen, X., and Bohórquez, D. V. (2018), A gut-brain neural circuit for nutrient sensory transduction, ​Science,
​ Vol. 361, Issue 6408

 

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ADHD and Exercise

ADHD is among the most common psychiatric disorders, with ~3% prevalence in adulthood and ~5% in childhood. ADHD has a high risk for comorbid conditions. Comorbid means that one psychiatric disorder often comes together with another psychiatric disorder. For instance mood, anxiety and substance use disorders have high comorbid rates in adults with ADHD.

Adults with ADHD are also at risk for obesity and major depressive disorders and adolescent ADHD predicts adult obesity: 40% of adults with ADHD are also obese. These are worrying numbers. Many adults who have ADHD suffer from these negative consequences that come with their mental illness.

There is a growing body of scientific evidence of the powerful effects of nutrition and lifestyle on mental health. Exercise is one of them.It helps prevent or manage a wide range of health problems and concerns, including stroke, obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, depression, a number of types of cancer and arthritis. Besides that, regular exercise can help you sleep better, reduce stress, sharpen your mental functioning, and improve your sex life. Nearly all studies revolve around aerobic exercise which includes walking, jogging, swimming, and cycling.

Recent research shows that exercise might also have a positive effect on ADHD symptoms such as improving attention and cognition1,2 Additional research is needed to explore this effect further, but we can take a look at the mechanisms underlying this effect.

One of the parts in our brain that is affected by exercise is the prefrontal cortex. The prefrontal cortex plays an important role in controlling impulsive behavior and attention, and is positively influenced by exercise. Furthermore, dopamine and norepinephrine play an important role in attention regulation. Ritalin, among one of the most well-known medication for ADHD, also increases levels of dopamine.

When you exercise regularly, the basis levels of dopamine and norepinephrine rise, and even new dopamine receptors are created. These dopamine levels are also the reason why exercise therapy can be effective for people suffering from depression: low levels of dopamine are a predictor of depressive symptoms.

Taken together: people with ADHD are at risk for obesity and depression. Exercise has a positive influence on obesity, depression and ADHD. Wouldn’t it be great if we could treat people with ADHD with an exercise therapy?

The PROUD-study is currently studying the prevention of depressive symptoms, obesity and the improvement of general health in adolescents and young-adults with ADHD. PROUD establishes feasibility and effect sizes of two kinds of interventions: an aerobic exercise therapy and the effects of a bright light therapy.

Exercise and ADHDParticipants follow a 10 week exercise intervention in which they train three days a week: one day of only aerobic activities (20-40 min) and in two of these days, muscle-strengthening and aerobic activities (35 – 60 min). An app guides them through the exercises, and the intensity and duration of these exercises increase gradually. During a 24 week course changes in mood, condition, ADHD symptoms and body composition are measured.

I am really looking forward to the results of the effectiveness of this intervention in adolescents and adults with ADHD. It is great that this study tries to alter a lifestyle instead of temporarily symptom-reducing options. A healthy life is a happy life!

For more information about the PROUD-study see www.adhd-beweging-lichttherapie.nl (only in Dutch) or contact the researchers via proud@karakter.com. For more information about a healthy lifestyle and the positive effects on mental health, see our other blogs at https://newbrainnutrition.com/

 

References

  1. Kamp CF, Sperlich B, Holmberg HC (2014). Exercise reduces the symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and improves social behaviour, motor skills, strength and neuropsychological parameters. Acta Paediatrica, 103, 709-714.

 

  1. Choi JW, Han DH, Kang KD, Jung HY, Renshaw, PF (2015). Aerobic exercise and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: brain research. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 47, 33-39.
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Maladaptive or uncontrolled impulsivity and compulsivity lead to emotional and social maladjustment, e.g. addiction and crime, and underlie psychiatric disorders. Recently, alterations in microbiota composition have shown to have implications for brain and social behaviors as we have been explaining in our lasts blogs. The microbiota-gut-brain axis may be involved in this process but the mechanisms are not fully identified (1). The supplementation of probiotics can modulate the microbial community and now has been suspected to contribute to ameliorating symptoms of a psychiatric disease with possible influence on social behaviors (2). To date, no randomized controlled trial has been performed to establish feasibility and efficacy of this intervention targeting the reduction of impulsivity and compulsivity. This gave us the idea to perform a study to investigate the effects of supplementation with probiotics, working with adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) which in most cases present high levels of impulsivity, compulsivity and aggression.

Probiotics for healthWe call our project PROBIA, which is an acronym of “PROBiotics for Impulsivity in Adults”. This study will be performed in three centers of Europe including, Goethe University in Frankfurt, Semmelweis University in Budapest and Vall d’Hebron Research Institute (VHIR) in Barcelona, the coordinator of the clinical trial. We are planning to start recruiting patients in January of 2019 and obtain the results in 2021. In our study, we will explore the effects of probiotics by measuring the change in ADHD or BPD symptoms, general psychopathology, health-related quality of life, neurocognitive function, nutritional intake, and physical fitness. The effect of the intervention on the microbiome, epigenetics, blood biomarkers, and health will be also explored by collecting blood, stool, and saliva samples.

We are looking forward to having the results of this amazing study in order to understand the mechanisms involved in the crosstalk between the intestinal microbiome and the brain. If improvement effects can be established in these patients, new cost-effective treatment will be available to this population.

 This was co-authored by Josep Antoni Ramos-Quiroga, MD PhD, psychiatrist and Head of Department of Psychiatry at Hospital Universitari Vall d’Hebron in Barcelona, Spain. He is also professor at Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona.

Sources

  1. Desbonnet L, Clarke G, Shanahan F, Dinan TG, Cryan JF. Microbiota is essential for social development in the mouse. Mol Psychiatry [Internet]. The Author(s); 2013 May 21;19:146. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/mp.2013.65
  2. Felice VD, O SM. The microbiome and disorders of the central nervous system. 2017 [cited 2017 Oct 16]; Available from: https://ac.els-cdn.com/S0091305717300242/1-s2.0-S0091305717300242-main.pdf?_tid=b52750d8-b2ae-11e7-819b-00000aab0f02&acdnat=1508185089_58e99184d2c0f677d79ff1dd88d02667

 

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What is inflammation?

Inflammation is the response of the body’s immune system against external factors that can put your health in danger. When this system feels it is attacked by something that may harm your health, it activates some molecules that are called cytokines in order to neutralize or avoid any damage so you can be safe.

Why is inflammation bad? What does it do?

Inflammation isn’t bad by itself, since its purpose is to protect our body. In some cases however, when the duration of this response is extended for too long- I’m talking about years- it can cause harmful effects to your health. Especially, it can affect the brain by active transport of cytokines throughout this organ.

Neuro-inflammation may occur if this process continues past early stages. Neuro-inflammation plays an important role in the development of mental diseases such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism, schizophrenia, depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder (BD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), where elevated levels of inflammation have been found(1).

What causes inflammation? 

Inflammation can occur by different factors. Some of them could be: pathogens, injuries, chronic stress, and diseases like dermatitis, cystitis or bronchitis to mention a few.

Nutritional factors like overweight and poor diet quality can also trigger this process by increasing fat accumulation in our cells and damaging them (2). The exact mechanisms that are involved in these processes are still in research.

What decreases inflammation?

Research has found that adhering to a healthy diet, like the Mediterranean diet, characterized by high intake of fruit, vegetables, whole grains, fish, lean meats and nuts, can decrease inflammation and protect you against depressive symptoms and anxiety (3,4).

There is evidence that prebiotics, probiotics and synbiotics (a combination of prebiotics and probiotics) can also help lowering inflammation. In addition, you should avoid eating pro-inflammatory foods that have been found to increase the risk of inflammation, and with it mental disorders. Some of these are refined carbohydrates, beverages with a lot of sugar added like soda, juice and sports drinks, processed meat and foods high in saturated fats (5).

What are anti-inflammatory foods

Anti-inflammatory foods are the contrast of pro-inflammatory foods. These are foods that have been found to promote or induce low levels of inflammation in our body, which may protect us against neurological disorders. Briefly, these foods include fruits, vegetables, olive oil, fish and spices like curcuma (turmeric).

Here’s what YOU can do to minimize inflammation and improve your mental health.

Inflammation and Foods

This was co-authored by Josep Antoni Ramos-Quiroga, MD PhD psychiatrist and Head of Department of Psychiatry at Hospital Universitari Vall d’Hebron in Barcelona, Spain. He is also professor at Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona.

Sources

  1. Mitchell RHB, Goldstein BI. Inflammation in children and adolescents with neuropsychiatric disorders: A systematic review. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry [Internet]. Elsevier Inc; 2014;53(3):274–96. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2013.11.013
  2. Ogłodek EA, Just MJ. The Association between Inflammatory Markers (iNOS, HO-1, IL-33, MIP-1β) and Depression with and without Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Pharmacol Reports [Internet]. 2018;70:1065–72. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1734114017305923
  3. Lassale C, Batty GD, Baghdadli A, Jacka F, Sánchez-Villegas A, Kivimäki M, et al. Healthy dietary indices and risk of depressive outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Mol Psychiatry [Internet]. Springer US; 2018;1. Available from: http://www.nature.com/articles/s41380-018-0237-8
  4. Phillips CM, Shivappa N, Hébert JR, Perry IJ. Dietary inflammatory index and mental health: A cross-sectional analysis of the relationship with depressive symptoms, anxiety and well-being in adults. Clin Nutr. 2017;37.
  5. Shivappa N, Bonaccio M, Hebert JR, Di Castelnuovo A, Costanzo S, Ruggiero E, et al. Association of proinflammatory diet with low-grade inflammation: results from the Moli-sani study. Nutrition. 2018;54:182–8.

 

 

 

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