In our Eat2BeNice project, we want to know how lifestyle-factors, and nutrition contribute to impulsive, compulsive, and externalizing behaviours. The best way to investigate this is to follow lifestyle and health changes in individuals for a longer period of time. This is called a prospective cohort study, as it allows us to investigate whether lifestyle and nutrition events at one point in time are associated with health effects at a later point.

Luckily we can make use of the LifeGene project for this. LifeGene is a unique project that aims to advance the knowledge about how genes, environments, and lifestyle-factors affect our health. Starting from September 2009, individuals aged 18 to 45 years, were randomly sampled from the Swedish general population. Participants were invited to include their families (partner and children). All study participants will be prompted annually to respond to an update web-based questionnaire on changes in household composition, symptoms, injuries and pregnancy.

The LifeGene project (1) consists of two parts: First, a comprehensive web-based questionnaire to collect information about the physical, mental and social well-being of the study participants. Nine themes are provided for adults: Lifestyle (including detailed dietary intake and nutrition information), Self-care, Woman’s health, Living habits, Healthy history, Asthma and allergy, Injuries, Mental health and Sociodemographic. The partners and children receive questions about two to four of these themes. For children below the age of 15 the parents are requested to answer the questions for them.

The second part is a health test: at the test centres, the study participants are examined for weight, height, waist, hip and chest circumference, heart rate and blood pressure, along with hearing. Blood and urine samples are also taken at the test centres for analysis and bio-banking.

Up until 2019, LifeGene contains information from a total of 52,107 participants. Blood, serum and urine from more than 29,500 participants are stored in Karolinska Institute (KI) biobank. From these we can analyze genetic data and biomarkers for diabetes, heart disease, kidney disease and other somatic diseases. Based on LifeGene, we aim to identify nutritional and lifestyle components that have the most harmful or protective effects on impulsive, compulsive, and externalizing behaviors across the lifespan, and further examine whether nutritional factors are important mediators to link impulsivity, compulsivity and metabolic diseases(e.g. obesity, diabetes). We will update you on our results in the near future.

For more information, please go to the LifeGene homepage www.lifegene.se. LifeGene is an open-access resource for many national and international researchers and a platform for a myriad of biomedical research projects. Several research projects are underway at LifeGene https://lifegene.se/for-scientists/ongoing-research/.

This was co-authored by Henrik Larsson, professor in the School of Medical Science, Örebro University and Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institute, Sweden.

AUTHORS:
Lin Li, MSc, PhD student in the School of Medical Science, Örebro University, Sweden.

Henrik Larsson, PhD, professor in the School of Medical Science, Örebro University and Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institute, Sweden.

REFERENCES:

  1. Almqvist C, Adami HO, Franks PW, Groop L, Ingelsson E, Kere J, et al. LifeGene–a large prospective population-based study of global relevance. Eur J Epidemiol. 2011;26(1):67-77.
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A little while ago, this blog featured an entry by Annick Bosch on the TRACE study, an amazing intervention study using the Elimination Diet to treat ADHD in kids (https://newbrainnutrition.com/adhd-and-elimination-diet/). Very shortly summarized, the Elimination Diet entails that participants can only eat a very restricted set of foodstuffs for several weeks, which can greatly reduce the number of ADHD symptoms in some kids. Subsequently, new foodstuffs are added back into the diet one by one, all the time checking that ADHD symptoms do not return. This ensures that every child for which the Elimination Diet proves successful ends up with a unique diet which suppresses their ADHD symptoms.

Now this is a fascinating study, since it indicates a direct influence of diet on ADHD behavior. What we know from the neurobiology of ADHD, is that it is caused by a myriad of relatively small changes in the structure, connectivity and functioning of several brain networks 1. For the most common treatments of ADHD, like medication with methylphenidate 2, we can quite accurately see the changes these interventions have on brain functioning. However, for the Elimination Diet, this has not been studied before at all. This is why we are now starting with the TRACE-MRI study, where kids that participate in a diet intervention in the TRACE program, are also asked to join for two sessions in an MRI scanner. Once before the start of the diet, and once again after 5 weeks, when the strictest phase of the Elimination Diet concludes. In the MRI scanner, we will look at the structure of the brain, at the connectivity of the brain, and at the functioning of the brain using two short psychological tasks. We made a short vlog detailing the experience of some of our first volunteers for this MRI session.

 

 

With the addition of this MRI session, we hope to be able to see the changes in brain structure and function over the first 5 weeks of the diet intervention. This will help us establish a solid biological foundation of how diet can influence the brain in general, and ADHD symptoms specifically. It can also show us if the effect of the Elimination Diet is found in the same brain networks and systems which respond to medication treatment. And lastly, we can see if there is a difference in the brains for those participants for whom the diet has a strong effect versus those where the diet does little or nothing to improve their ADHD symptoms. This can then help us identify for which people a dietary intervention would be a good alternative to standard treatment.

We will update you on the TRACE-MRI study and on the developments in this field right here on this blog!

 

REFERENCES
Faraone, S. V et al. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder ­­­. Nat. Rev. Dis. Prim. 1, (2015).

Konrad, K., Neufang, S., Fink, G. R. & Herpertz-Dahlmann, B. Long-term effects of methylphenidate on neural networks associated with executive attention in children with ADHD: results from a longitudinal functional MRI study. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry 46, 1633–41 (2007).

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This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 728018

New Brain Nutrition is a project and brand of Eat2BeNice, a consortium of 18 European University Hospitals throughout the continent.

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