Feeling more happy after a run? Or feeling a bit blue during the dark winter days? Regular exercising and regular daylight exposure can influence your mood, behaviour and sleep-wake cycle 1,2,3. But can this also be used in a therapeutical setting, for instance in addition to or instead of the usual treatment with medication?

The PROUD trial aims to investigate the potential of bright light therapy and physical exercise to improve and prevent depression and obesity in adolescents and young adults with ADHD. This clinical trial is part of the CoCA research project, in which comorbid conditions of ADHD are investigated [insert hyperlink: https://coca-project.eu/coca-phase-iia-trial/study/]. In addition, we collect the stool samples of all participants in order to investigate the effects of physical exercise on the gut microbiome and how this is linked to behaviour. That part of the study is part of the Eat2beNICE research project.

Most people with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) receive medication to reduce their symptoms4. While this medication works well for many people, there is a lot of interest in other types of treatment. One reason for this is that people with ADHD suffer from additional conditions, such as depression5 and obesity6. The risk for developing these comorbid conditions is especially high during adolescence and young adulthood4.

Adolescents and young adults (age 14-45) with ADHD that want to participate are randomly assigned to one of three groups: 10-weeks of daily light therapy (30 minutes), 10-weeks of daily physical exercise (3x per day) or 10-week care as usual (for instance, the normal medication). The random assignment is very important here in order to compare the different interventions. We don’t want to have all people that like sports in the physical exercise group, because then we don’t know if the effects of the physical exercise are due to the intervention, or due to the fact that these people just like sports better.

Another nice feature of the study is that it uses a phone app (called m-Health). This app is used to remind the participants to do their exercise or light therapy, but it also gives feedback and summaries of how the participant is doing. The app is linked to a wrist sensor that measures activity and light.

The clinical trial is currently ongoing in London (England), Nijmegen (Netherlands), Frankfurt (Germany) and Barcelona (Spain). We can’t look at the results until the end of the trial, so for those we will need to wait until 2021. But in the mean time the PROUD-researchers have interviewed four participants. You can read these interviews here:

This blog is based on the blog “10 weeks of physical exercise or light therapy: what’s it like to participate in our clinical trial?” by Jutta Mayer and Adam Pawley, 9 Oct. 2018 on MiND the Gap – https://mind-the-gap.live/2018/10/09/10-weeks-of-physical-exercise-or-light-therapy/


  1. Terman, M. Evolving applications of light therapy. Sleep Medicine Reviews. 2007; 11(6): 497-507.
  2. Stanton, R. & Reaburn, P. Exercise and the treatment of depression: A review of the exercise program variables. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 2014; 17(2):177-182
  3. Youngstedt, S.D. Effects of exercise on sleep. Clinical Sports Medicine. 2005; 24(2):355-365.
  4. Cortese S, Adamo N, Del Giovane C, Mohr-Jensen C, Hayes AJ, Carucci S, et al. Comparative efficacy and tolerability of medications for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children, adolescents, and adults: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. Lancet Psychiatry. 2018;5(9):727-738.
  5. Jacob CP, Romanos J, Dempfle A, Heine M, Windemuth-Kieselbach C, Kruse A, et al. Co-morbidity of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with focus on personality traits and related disorders in a tertiary referral center. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2007;257:309–17.
  6. Cortese S, Moreira-Maia CR, St Fleur D, Morcillo-Penalver C, Rohde LA, Faraone SV. Association between ADHD and obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Psychiatry. 2016;173:34–43.
  7. Meinzer MC, Lewinsohn PM, Pettit JW, Seeley JR, Gau JM, Chronis-Tuscano A, et al. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adolescence predicts onset of major depressive disorder through early adulthood. Depress Anxiety. 2013;30:546–53
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Recently, I participated in the Radboud Talks 2019, a scientific pitch competition, where I was lucky to be one of the eight finalists.

Why Radboud Talks? It is a perfect opportunity to share my work/ideas with the world and to gain more experience regarding presentation skills. They organized two workshops beforehand, where I had the opportunity to learn presentation techniques from professionals (actors and science communication advisors). We also received a lot of feedback, so I really learned a lot about how to present my scientific work to a general audience.

Below you can find the video from the preliminaries based on which I was chosen as a finalist. There you can hear about my research project which is about gut bacteria and their potential role in ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder). ADHD is a common worldwide neurodevelopmental disorder. Every person with ADHD has a unique combination of symptoms and challenges. Importantly, it has a significant social impact on patients’ lives, causing disruption at school, work and relationships. Despite its societal importance, progress in understanding disease biology has been slow.


The study of the human microbiome has become a very popular topic, because of their revealed importance in human physiology and health maintenance. Numerous studies have reported that gut bacteria may have an effect on our mental health. Some studies showed a potential role of gut bacteria in a psychiatric disorder like depression, autism or Parkinson (1). Above all, diet showed to have a profound effect of ADHD symptoms. This was earlier described in this blog: https://newbrainnutrition.com/investigating-the-effects-of-a-dietary-intervention-in-adhd-on-the-brain/ and we know that diet is one of the main factors influencing gut bacteria. Taking all together, I am curious (and investigating) if gut bacteria play a role in ADHD and if yes what kind of effect do they have on ADHD symptoms.

Bastiaanssen, T., Cowan, C., Claesson, M. J., Dinan, T. G., & Cryan, J. F. (2018). Making Sense of … the Microbiome in Psychiatry. The international journal of neuropsychopharmacology22(1), 37–52. doi:10.1093/ijnp/pyy067


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Our body is colonized by trillions of microorganisms that are important for vital processes. Gut microbiota are the microorganisms living in the intestinal gut and play an essential role in digestion, vitamin synthesis and metabolism, among others. The mouth and the large intestine contain the vast majority of gut microbiota whether the stomach only contains few thousands of microorganisms, especially due to the acidity of its fluids. Microbiota composition is constantly changing, affecting the well-being and health of the individual.

Each individual has a unique microbiota composition, and it depends on several factors including diet, diseases, medication and also the genetics of the individual (host) (Figure). Some medicines, especially antibiotics, reduce bacterial diversity. Strong and broad spectrum antibiotics can have longer effects on gut microbiota, some of them up to several years. Genetic variation of an individual also affects the microbiota composition, and the abundance of certain microorganisms is partly genetically determined by the host.

The main contributor to gut microbiota diversity is diet, accounting for 57% of variation. Several studies have demonstrated that diet’s composition has a direct impact on gut microbiota. For example, an study performed on mice showed that “Western diet” (high-fat and sugar diet), alters the composition of microbiota in just one day! On the other hand, vegetarian and calorie restricted diet can also have an effect on gut microbiota composition.

Prebiotics and probiotics are diet strategies more used to control and reestablish the gut microbiota and improve the individual’s health. Probiotics are non-pathogenic microorganisms used as food ingredients (e.g. lactobacillus present in yoghurt) and prebiotics are indigestible food material (e.g. fibers in raw garlic, asparagus and onions), which are nutrients to increase the growth of beneficial microorganisms.

In the last years the new term psychobiotics has been introduced to define live bacteria with beneficial effects on mental health. Psychobiotics are of particular interest for improving the symptomatology of psychiatric disorders and recent preclinical trials have show promising results, particularly in stress, anxiety and depression.

Overall, these approaches are appealing because they can be introduced in food and drink and therefore provide a relatively non-invasive method of manipulating the microbiota.

Judit Cabana-Domínguez and Noèlia Fernàndez-Castillo

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ADHD and Exercise

ADHD is among the most common psychiatric disorders, with ~3% prevalence in adulthood and ~5% in childhood. ADHD has a high risk for comorbid conditions. Comorbid means that one psychiatric disorder often comes together with another psychiatric disorder. For instance mood, anxiety and substance use disorders have high comorbid rates in adults with ADHD.

Adults with ADHD are also at risk for obesity and major depressive disorders and adolescent ADHD predicts adult obesity: 40% of adults with ADHD are also obese. These are worrying numbers. Many adults who have ADHD suffer from these negative consequences that come with their mental illness.

There is a growing body of scientific evidence of the powerful effects of nutrition and lifestyle on mental health. Exercise is one of them.It helps prevent or manage a wide range of health problems and concerns, including stroke, obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, depression, a number of types of cancer and arthritis. Besides that, regular exercise can help you sleep better, reduce stress, sharpen your mental functioning, and improve your sex life. Nearly all studies revolve around aerobic exercise which includes walking, jogging, swimming, and cycling.

Recent research shows that exercise might also have a positive effect on ADHD symptoms such as improving attention and cognition1,2 Additional research is needed to explore this effect further, but we can take a look at the mechanisms underlying this effect.

One of the parts in our brain that is affected by exercise is the prefrontal cortex. The prefrontal cortex plays an important role in controlling impulsive behavior and attention, and is positively influenced by exercise. Furthermore, dopamine and norepinephrine play an important role in attention regulation. Ritalin, among one of the most well-known medication for ADHD, also increases levels of dopamine.

When you exercise regularly, the basis levels of dopamine and norepinephrine rise, and even new dopamine receptors are created. These dopamine levels are also the reason why exercise therapy can be effective for people suffering from depression: low levels of dopamine are a predictor of depressive symptoms.

Taken together: people with ADHD are at risk for obesity and depression. Exercise has a positive influence on obesity, depression and ADHD. Wouldn’t it be great if we could treat people with ADHD with an exercise therapy?

The PROUD-study is currently studying the prevention of depressive symptoms, obesity and the improvement of general health in adolescents and young-adults with ADHD. PROUD establishes feasibility and effect sizes of two kinds of interventions: an aerobic exercise therapy and the effects of a bright light therapy.

Exercise and ADHDParticipants follow a 10 week exercise intervention in which they train three days a week: one day of only aerobic activities (20-40 min) and in two of these days, muscle-strengthening and aerobic activities (35 – 60 min). An app guides them through the exercises, and the intensity and duration of these exercises increase gradually. During a 24 week course changes in mood, condition, ADHD symptoms and body composition are measured.

I am really looking forward to the results of the effectiveness of this intervention in adolescents and adults with ADHD. It is great that this study tries to alter a lifestyle instead of temporarily symptom-reducing options. A healthy life is a happy life!

For more information about the PROUD-study see www.adhd-beweging-lichttherapie.nl (only in Dutch) or contact the researchers via proud@karakter.com. For more information about a healthy lifestyle and the positive effects on mental health, see our other blogs at https://newbrainnutrition.com/



  1. Kamp CF, Sperlich B, Holmberg HC (2014). Exercise reduces the symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and improves social behaviour, motor skills, strength and neuropsychological parameters. Acta Paediatrica, 103, 709-714.


  1. Choi JW, Han DH, Kang KD, Jung HY, Renshaw, PF (2015). Aerobic exercise and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: brain research. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 47, 33-39.
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New research has been published in September 2018 which reveals preliminary evidence that symptoms of depression can be reduced by adherence to the Mediterranean diet and anti-inflammatory foods.  New Brain Nutrition is advancing this research with never-before-done clinical trials testing the protective effects of nutrition and specifically the Mediterranean diet.

You can download our FREE REPORT, learn what we know now, and then be updated on our progress as the clinical trials produce results.

Download your free report today!!

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Constantly feeling low mood and blue, losing of pleasure in life and appetite or having difficulties to have good sleep.

These are just some of the symptoms of one of the most prevalent mental conditions worldwide: depression. It affects hundreds of millions people globally, particularly women. Although depression seems to have a genetic component, lifestyle factors like diet have been suggested to play possible roles in the development of this condition and the degree of their symptoms. In fact, many different studies have suggested that different healthy diets may have important benefits for depression.

did i eat thatIn a recently published meta-analysis at the prestigious scientific journal Molecular Psychiatry, Lassale and coworkers aimed to summarize current epidemiological evidence in relation to healthy dietary patterns and depression. They included a total of 41 high quality observational studies conducted in healthy people from different countries, focusing on several types of well-known healthy dietary indices: Mediterranean diet, the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) and Alternative HEI (AHEI), and the Dietary Inflammatory Index. These healthy dietary indices score favorably for the consumption of different “healthy” foods, such as fruits and vegetables, nuts, cereals, legumes and healthy fats; and they penalize the consumption of “unhealthy” foods, such as processed foods.

The main findings of the Lassale meta-analysis revealed that those persons following more closely the Mediterranean diet, and those following less the pro-inflammatory diet, showed lower risk of depression and depressive symptoms. Similar beneficial results were observed with a high adherence to the HEI and AHEI diets, yet the evidence was not as strong as with the Mediterranean diet. Indeed, the dietary patterns evaluated in this study contain foods and nutrients which may modulate important biological processes related with depression. For example, healthy diets may reduce oxidative stress and inflammation processes, improve insulin sensitivity and blood circulation in the brain.

These important findings give a strong basis to the role of healthy dietary patterns like the Mediterranean diet in preventing depression and depressive symptoms, and they contribute to build future dietary recommendations to prevent this mental condition.

However, as the authors comment, it is important to keep in mind that all the studies included are observational, meaning, it is not possible to establish causal effects between diet and depression.

To establish causality that can be used to directly translate the knowledge into clinical practice, science needs specific intervention studies. In these studies, a healthy diet is followed for a long time and depression incidence is evaluated.

An example of this is the study conducted in the frame of the PREDIMED study with a population of Mediterranean adults at high cardiovascular risk. In this study, participants consuming the Mediterranean diet supplemented with nuts showed 41% protection against depression, although these benefits were only observed in people with diabetes. In view of the PREDIMED-Plus trial, a multicenter study is being conducted in Spain for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease using an intensive lifestyle intervention. It will be possible to confirm these results and have new knowledge in the field of depression. With PREDIMED-plus, the investigators will be able to evaluate whether an energy-restricted Mediterranean diet,  with promotion of  physical activity, may be effective for reducing the risk of depression in elders at high cardiovascular risk. In case of the Eat2BeNice study we plan to analyse in the future the effect of PREDIMED-PLUS interventions not only on depression but also on mood and especially on impulsivity and compulsivity, two important domains related to brain function.

Overall, following a healthy diet, like Mediterranean diet, not only has important benefits for different aspects of human health but also it is likely that the diet prevents depression,  depressive-related symptoms and possible other mental related conditions. For this reason, a healthy diet nourishes a healthy mind.



Lassale C, Batty GD, Baghdadli A, Jacka F, Sánchez-Villegas A, Kivimäki M, Akbaraly T. Healthy dietary indices and risk of depressive outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Mol Psychiatry. 2018 Sep 26. doi: 10.1038/s41380-018-0237-8.

Sánchez-Villegas A, Martínez-González MA, Estruch R, Salas-Salvadó J, Corella  D, Covas MI, Arós F, Romaguera D, Gómez-Gracia E, Lapetra J, Pintó X, Martínez JA, Lamuela-Raventós RM, Ros E, Gea A, Wärnberg J, Serra-Majem L. Mediterranean dietary pattern and depression: the PREDIMED randomized trial. BMC Med. 2013 Sep  20;11:208. doi: 10.1186/1741-7015-11-208.


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Recently, the idea that gastrointestinal microbiota are able to affect host behaviour is gaining momentum and it is based on studies conducted with animal models but also in humans with neurological disorders. However, the mechanisms that underlay this complex interplay between gut, brain and microbiota are not completely understood. Here we discuss recent findings on how microbial products could potentially affect the gut-brain axis.

Intestinal microbiota grow through the fermentation of undigested carbohydrates that end up in the large intestine. It was shown that absence of microbes or disruption of the microbiota, led to increased populations of impaired microglia cells in mice. Microglia cells are the primary effector cells for immune signalling to the central nervous system. The presence of a complex microbiota community, was shown to be essential for proper microglia maturation and function [1].

The main products of microbial fermentation in the gut are; acetate, propionate and butyrate, collectively known as short chain fatty acids(SCFA’s). Their beneficial role in human physiology have been well described, and recently evidence suggests that these molecules are able to cross blood brain barrier [2]. Moreover, gut microbiota have been associated with the brain barrier integrity. Mice raised in absence of bacteria are reported to have reduced brain barrier integrity. Once colonized with either a butyrate or an acetate/propionate producing bacteria, significant improvements were reported in the barrier [3]. Notably the integrity of the blood-brain barrier from the germ free mice was able to be restored through the oral administration of butyrate.

Gut_Microbes and Mental HealthSCFA’s are among the molecules having the privilege to cross the blood brain barrier and access the brain directly, their role should be studied in detail.

Recent studies also demonstrate that gut microbes regulate levels of intestinal neurotransmitters. The enteric nervous system interacts with a plethora of neurotransmitters (more than 30 have been identified so far.) Actually, the bulk of serotonin production ~90%, a neurotransmitter associated with mood and appetite is located in the gut. Specialized cells known as enterochromaffin cells are the main serotonin producers in the gut. In the absence of intestinal microbiota gastrointestinal serotonin levels are depleted. However, they can be restored by the addition of a specific spore forming consortium of intestinal bacteria. Specific bacterial metabolites have been reported to mediate this effect [4].

Other intestinal microbiota have been reported also to regulate the levels of the GABA neurotransmitter. Reduced levels of GABA have been associated with anxiety, panic disorder and depression. Bacterial GABA producers have been known to exist for years but it was not until 2016 that a gut bacteria was identified as GABA consumer [5]. For example, decreased levels of bacterial GABA producers were identified in a human cohort of depressed individuals. Studies in mice reinforce these findings. Intervention with the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus rhamnosus (JB-1) in healthy mice reduced anxiety related symptoms (accompanied by a reduction in the mRNA expression of GABA receptors in the Central Nervous System.) Lactic acid producing bacteria have also been reported to produce GABA in several food products such as kimchi, fermented fish and cheese [6].

Collectively, our gut microbiota encodes for ~100 times more genes than the human genome. The potential for some of these microbial genes to produce compounds able to interact with the nervous system and regulate critical pathways implicated in the gut brain axis is realistic and worth being explored.

Authors Prokopis Konstanti, MSc and Clara Belzer, PhD are working in the Department of Molecular Ecology, Laboratory of Microbiology, Wageningen University, Netherlands.


  1. Erny, D., et al., Host microbiota constantly control maturation and function of microglia in the CNS. Nature neuroscience, 2015. 18(7): p. 965-977.
  2. Joseph, J., et al., Modified Mediterranean Diet for Enrichment of Short Chain Fatty Acids: Potential Adjunctive Therapeutic to Target Immune and Metabolic Dysfunction in Schizophrenia? Frontiers in Neuroscience, 2017. 11(155).
  3. Braniste, V., et al., The gut microbiota influences blood-brain barrier permeability in mice. Science translational medicine, 2014. 6(263): p. 263ra158-263ra158.
  4. Yano, J.M., et al., Indigenous bacteria from the gut microbiota regulate host serotonin biosynthesis. Cell, 2015. 161(2): p. 264-276.
  5. P. Strandwitz, K.K., D. Dietrich, D. McDonald, T. Ramadhar, E. J. Stewart, R. Knight, J. Clardy, K. Lewis; , Gaba Modulating Bacteria of the Human Gut Microbiome. 2016.
  6. Dhakal, R., V.K. Bajpai, and K.-H. Baek, Production of gaba (γ – Aminobutyric acid) by microorganisms: a review. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, 2012. 43(4): p. 1230-1241.


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