The reason why I look at impulsive behavior is because mental disorders are the single largest contributors to disease burden in Europe. Impulsivity and compulsivity increase the risk of psychiatric disorders, especially Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, alcohol and drug abuse disorders, conduct disorder and antisocial disorders (including aggression). The urgency of addressing impulsivity and compulsivity is additionally strongly supported by the fact that these problems increase the risk for mortality.
My name is Yvonne Willemsen and I have started my PhD track at Radboud University in the Netherlands in October 2017. For my project I will assess the association between nutrition, gut microbiota composition and impulsive behavior in toddlers and young adolescents. In the following paragraphs, I will explain the first study that I am currently conducting.
Many previous studies have examined the association between nutrition and executive functions. Executive functions are cognitive processes in the brain that contribute to regulating thoughts and behaviors. Executive functions can be roughly divided into three core functions, namely: inhibitory control, working memory, and cognitive flexibility. Inhibitory control, which can be interpreted as the opposite of impulsivity, is necessary to suppress impulses. It is also an important core function of executive functions, as it supports working memory and cognitive flexibility. To date, studies have examined the association between nutrition and executive functions in general (1). Whether nutrition is related to inhibitory control specifically (in toddlers and young adolescents) is something that still needs to be investigated.
The next step of my study is to understand how nutrition is associated with inhibitory control. To explain a possible mechanism, we will look at the gut microbiota. The reason why the gut microbiota is a point of interest is because gut microbiota can secrete molecules that may influence brain function, and thus may influence inhibitory control (2). This connection between the gut and the brain is also known as the gut-brain axis. Gut microbiota composition can change according to nutritional intake, and can therefore play a role in the gut brain axis (3). To assess the association between nutrition, gut microbiota and behavior in toddlers and young adolescents, we will use questionnaires and different behavioural measures.
- Cohen, J. F. W., Gorski, M. T., Gruber, S. A., Kurdziel, L. B. F. & Rimm, E. B. The effect of healthy dietary consumption on executive cognitive functioning in children and adolescents: a systematic review. Br. J. Nutr. 116, 989–1000 (2016). Link
- Rogers, G. B. et al. From gut dysbiosis to altered brain function and mental illness: mechanisms and pathways. Mol. Psychiatry 21, 738–748 (2016). Link
- Oriach, C. S., Robertson, R. C., Stanton, C., Cryan, J. F. & Dinan, T. G. Food for thought: The role of nutrition in the microbiota-gut–brain axis. Clin. Nutr. Exp. 6, 25–38 (2016). Link