Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder that results from the interaction of both genetic and environmental risk factors. Genome-wide association studies have started to identify multiple genetic risk loci associated with ADHD, however, the exact causal genes and biological mechanisms remain largely unknown. We performed a multi-step analysis to identify and characterize modules of co-expressed genes associated with ADHD using data from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 270 ADHD cases and 279 controls. We identified seven ADHD-associated modules of co-expressed genes, some of them enriched in both genetic and epigenetic signatures for ADHD and in biological pathways relevant for psychiatric disorders, such as the regulation of gene expression, epigenetics and immune system. In addition, for some of the modules, we found evidence of potential regulatory mechanisms, including microRNAs and common genetic variants. In conclusion, our results point to promising genes and pathways for ADHD, supporting the use of peripheral blood to assess gene expression signatures in psychiatric disorders. Furthermore, they highlight that the combination of multi-omics signals provides deeper and broader insights into the biological mechanisms underlying ADHD.
Comprehensive analysis of omics data identifies relevant gene networks for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Cabana-Domínguez, J., Soler Artigas, M., Arribas, L. et al.