Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder resulting from the interaction between genetic and environmental risk factors. It is well known that ADHD co-occurs frequently with other psychiatric disorders due, in part, to shared genetics factors. Although many studies have contributed to delineate the genetic landscape of psychiatric disorders, their specific molecular underpinnings are still not fully understood. The use of animal models can help us to understand the role of specific genes and environmental stimuli-induced epigenetic modifications in the pathogenesis of ADHD and its comorbidities. The aim of this review is to provide an overview on the functional work performed in rodents, zebrafish and fruit fly and highlight the generated insights into the biology of ADHD, with a special focus on genetics and epigenetics. We also describe the behavioral tests that are available to study ADHD-relevant phenotypes and comorbid traits in these models. Furthermore, we have searched for new models to study ADHD and its comorbidities, which can be useful to test potential pharmacological treatments.
The translational genetics of ADHD and related phenotypes in model organisms
Judit Cabana-Domínguez, Ester Antón-Galindo, Noèlia Fernàndez-Castillo, Euginia L. Singgih, Aet O’Leary, William HG Norton, Tatyana Strekalova, Annette Schenck, Andreas Reif, Klaus-Peter Lesch, David Slattery, Bru Cormand
Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews