The popularity of yoga practice has risen sharply in recent years. In 2006, already 2.6 million people in Germany practiced yoga regularly (1). The arguments for yoga are widely spread in the population, for example the energy and immune function are increased and back pain, arthritis and stress are relieved (2). For others, the practice of yoga is an important factor in doing something good for themselves, while for others the discipline and control of the body is more in focus.

But, where does yoga come from?
The yoga tradition originates from India, the religion of Buddhism, and has a philosophical background with original roots reaching back over 2000 to 5000 years. The term “yoga” comes from the word “yui”, which has its origin in Sanskrit, a very ancient Indian language, and means “unite”. Accordingly, yoga refers to the union of body, mind and soul (3).

What exactly does a yoga practice involve?
In western countries the focus is especially on the Asana practice, the postures. The postures can be lying, sitting or standing and should be performed as attentively as possible. All Asanas have associated Sanskrit names and also pictorial names such as the Cobra (Bhujangasana) or the down looking dog (Adho Mukha Svanasana). Further essential elements are the breathing techniques (Pranayama), where the breath is consciously directed (e.g. Kapalabathi, alternative breathing) and the meditation (Dhyana), where the mind is consciously directed, by calming down, insight can be attained and a state of deep relaxation can be achieved.

But, can yoga really have a positive effect on mental and physical health?
In view of the study and literature available, YES! A meta-analysis results that yoga is effective as a complementary treatment for psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (4).

Yoga can have a positive influence on the reduction of depression symptoms, the reduction of stress and anxiety, and can lead to an increase in self-love, awareness and life satisfaction (5, 6). On the physiological level, the results can also be found in the reduction of the stress hormone cortisol (7).

In the case of anxiety disorders, relaxation is a central component of yoga practice. Clients lack confidence, courage and stability, so that autogenic training, progressive muscle relaxation and deep relaxation can be beneficial.

In the presence of eating disorders, yoga can make an important contribution to increasing body satisfaction, awareness and receptivity as well as reducing self-objectivity and psychological symptoms (8). Prevention programs with concentration on yoga appear promising, as body satisfaction and social self-concept have been increased and bulimic symptoms reduced.

Conclusion: The integration into the health system for prevention and complementary therapy seems to be reasonable and as Mind Body Therapy, integrated into the treatment concept, positive effects on mental health can be achieved. In addition to body awareness, yoga concentrates on personal awareness and self-love and has an effect on the emotional, mental, cognitive and physical body levels. The yoga classes can be specifically adapted to the needs of the participants and can be set up in a disorder-specific way.

Advantages of yoga as a complementary therapy:
– Lower costs
– At the same time positive effect on the body
– No side effects
– Preventive and therapeutic support
– Less time required
– New contacts

What do you need to consider?
1. Choice of Yoga-Studio (atmosphere, costs, course offers)
2. Yoga teacher (e.g. education of teacher, authentic)
3. Yoga style (discover your preference, adapt to your daily state, examples follow)

– Vinyasa = flowing asanas, activating, breath and asanas in harmony
– Hatha = origin, breathing exercises, meditation, gentle asanas
– Ashtanga = powerful, always constant flowing sequences, condition
– Yin = relaxing, longer lasting asanas, calm, passive
– Acro Yoga = combination of acrobatics and yoga
– Kundalini = spiritual, mantras singing, meditation, energies

REFERENCES

  1. Klatte, R., Pabst, S., Beelmann, A. & Rosendahl, J. S. (2016). The efficacy of body-oriented yoga in mental disorders. Deutsches Arzteblatt international, 113 (20), 359. https://doi.org/10.3238/arztebl.2016.0195.
  2. Cramer, H., Ward, L., Steel, A., Lauche, R., Dobos, G. & Zhang, Y. (2016). Prevalence, Patterns, and Predictors of Yoga Use: Results of a U.S. Nationally Representative Survey. American journal of preventive medicine, 50 (2), 230–235.
  3. Jaquemart, P. & Elkefi, S. (1995). Yoga als Therapie. Lehrbuch für die Arzt und Naturheilpraxis. Augsburg: Weltbild Verlag.
  4. Cabral P, Meyer HB, Ames D. (2011). Effectiveness of yoga therapy as a complementary treatment for major psychiatric disorders: A meta-analysis. Prim Care Companion CNS Disord. 2011;13:pii: PCC10r01068.
  5. Ponte, S. B., Lino, C., Tavares, B., Amaral, B., Bettencourt, A. L., Nunes, T. et al. (2019). Yoga in primary health care. A quasi-experimental study to access the effects on quality of life and psychological distress. Complementary therapies in clinical practice, 34, 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctcp.2018.10.012
  6. Snaith, N., Schultz, T., Proeve, M. & Rasmussen, P. (2018). Mindfulness, self-compassion, anxiety and depression measures in South Australian yoga participants: implications for designing a yoga intervention. Complementary therapies in clinical practice, 32, 92–99. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctcp.2018.05.009
  7. Bershadsky, S., Trumpfheller, L., Kimble, H. B., Pipaloff, D. & Yim, I. S. (2014). The effect of prenatal Hatha yoga on affect, cortisol and depressive symptoms. Complementary therapies in clinical practice, 20 (2), 106–113. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctcp.2014.01.002
  8. Neumark-Sztainer, D. (2014). Yoga and eating disorders: is there a place for yoga in the prevention and treatment of eating disorders and disordered eating behaviours? Advances in eating disorders (Abingdon, England ), 2 (2), 136 145. https://doi.org/10.1080/21662630.2013.862369

 

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Our body is colonized by trillions of microorganisms that are important for vital processes. Gut microbiota are the microorganisms living in the intestinal gut and play an essential role in digestion, vitamin synthesis and metabolism, among others. The mouth and the large intestine contain the vast majority of gut microbiota whether the stomach only contains few thousands of microorganisms, especially due to the acidity of its fluids. Microbiota composition is constantly changing, affecting the well-being and health of the individual.

Each individual has a unique microbiota composition, and it depends on several factors including diet, diseases, medication and also the genetics of the individual (host) (Figure). Some medicines, especially antibiotics, reduce bacterial diversity. Strong and broad spectrum antibiotics can have longer effects on gut microbiota, some of them up to several years. Genetic variation of an individual also affects the microbiota composition, and the abundance of certain microorganisms is partly genetically determined by the host.

The main contributor to gut microbiota diversity is diet, accounting for 57% of variation. Several studies have demonstrated that diet’s composition has a direct impact on gut microbiota. For example, an study performed on mice showed that “Western diet” (high-fat and sugar diet), alters the composition of microbiota in just one day! On the other hand, vegetarian and calorie restricted diet can also have an effect on gut microbiota composition.

Prebiotics and probiotics are diet strategies more used to control and reestablish the gut microbiota and improve the individual’s health. Probiotics are non-pathogenic microorganisms used as food ingredients (e.g. lactobacillus present in yoghurt) and prebiotics are indigestible food material (e.g. fibers in raw garlic, asparagus and onions), which are nutrients to increase the growth of beneficial microorganisms.

In the last years the new term psychobiotics has been introduced to define live bacteria with beneficial effects on mental health. Psychobiotics are of particular interest for improving the symptomatology of psychiatric disorders and recent preclinical trials have show promising results, particularly in stress, anxiety and depression.

Overall, these approaches are appealing because they can be introduced in food and drink and therefore provide a relatively non-invasive method of manipulating the microbiota.

AUTHORS:
Judit Cabana-Domínguez and Noèlia Fernàndez-Castillo

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What is inflammation?

Inflammation is the response of the body’s immune system against external factors that can put your health in danger. When this system feels it is attacked by something that may harm your health, it activates some molecules that are called cytokines in order to neutralize or avoid any damage so you can be safe.

Why is inflammation bad? What does it do?

Inflammation isn’t bad by itself, since its purpose is to protect our body. In some cases however, when the duration of this response is extended for too long- I’m talking about years- it can cause harmful effects to your health. Especially, it can affect the brain by active transport of cytokines throughout this organ.

Neuro-inflammation may occur if this process continues past early stages. Neuro-inflammation plays an important role in the development of mental diseases such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism, schizophrenia, depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder (BD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), where elevated levels of inflammation have been found(1).

What causes inflammation? 

Inflammation can occur by different factors. Some of them could be: pathogens, injuries, chronic stress, and diseases like dermatitis, cystitis or bronchitis to mention a few.

Nutritional factors like overweight and poor diet quality can also trigger this process by increasing fat accumulation in our cells and damaging them (2). The exact mechanisms that are involved in these processes are still in research.

What decreases inflammation?

Research has found that adhering to a healthy diet, like the Mediterranean diet, characterized by high intake of fruit, vegetables, whole grains, fish, lean meats and nuts, can decrease inflammation and protect you against depressive symptoms and anxiety (3,4).

There is evidence that prebiotics, probiotics and synbiotics (a combination of prebiotics and probiotics) can also help lowering inflammation. In addition, you should avoid eating pro-inflammatory foods that have been found to increase the risk of inflammation, and with it mental disorders. Some of these are refined carbohydrates, beverages with a lot of sugar added like soda, juice and sports drinks, processed meat and foods high in saturated fats (5).

What are anti-inflammatory foods

Anti-inflammatory foods are the contrast of pro-inflammatory foods. These are foods that have been found to promote or induce low levels of inflammation in our body, which may protect us against neurological disorders. Briefly, these foods include fruits, vegetables, olive oil, fish and spices like curcuma (turmeric).

Here’s what YOU can do to minimize inflammation and improve your mental health.

Inflammation and Foods

This was co-authored by Josep Antoni Ramos-Quiroga, MD PhD psychiatrist and Head of Department of Psychiatry at Hospital Universitari Vall d’Hebron in Barcelona, Spain. He is also professor at Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona.

Sources

  1. Mitchell RHB, Goldstein BI. Inflammation in children and adolescents with neuropsychiatric disorders: A systematic review. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry [Internet]. Elsevier Inc; 2014;53(3):274–96. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2013.11.013
  2. Ogłodek EA, Just MJ. The Association between Inflammatory Markers (iNOS, HO-1, IL-33, MIP-1β) and Depression with and without Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Pharmacol Reports [Internet]. 2018;70:1065–72. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1734114017305923
  3. Lassale C, Batty GD, Baghdadli A, Jacka F, Sánchez-Villegas A, Kivimäki M, et al. Healthy dietary indices and risk of depressive outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Mol Psychiatry [Internet]. Springer US; 2018;1. Available from: http://www.nature.com/articles/s41380-018-0237-8
  4. Phillips CM, Shivappa N, Hébert JR, Perry IJ. Dietary inflammatory index and mental health: A cross-sectional analysis of the relationship with depressive symptoms, anxiety and well-being in adults. Clin Nutr. 2017;37.
  5. Shivappa N, Bonaccio M, Hebert JR, Di Castelnuovo A, Costanzo S, Ruggiero E, et al. Association of proinflammatory diet with low-grade inflammation: results from the Moli-sani study. Nutrition. 2018;54:182–8.

 

 

 

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A hot topic these days, that one can hear more and more information about is the microbiota-gut-brain axis, the bidirectional interaction between the intestinal microbiota and the central nervous system nowadays, this has become a hot topic. We are becoming increasingly aware that gut microbiota play a significant role in modulating brain functions, behavior and brain development. Pre- and probiotics can influence the microbiota composition, so the question arises, can we have an impact on our mental health by controlling nutrition and using probiotics?

Burokas and colleagues aimed to investigate this possibility in their study (2017), where the goal was to test whether chronic prebiotic treatment in mice modifies behavior across domains relevant to anxiety, depression, cognition, stress response, and social behavior.

In the first part of the study, the researchers fed mice with prebiotics for 10 weeks. They were administered the prebiotics fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), a combination of both, or water. FOS and GOS are soluble fibers that are associated with the stimulation of beneficial bacteria such as bifidobacterium and lactobacillus.

Behavioral testing started from the third week including

  • the open field test (anxiety – amount of exploratory behavior in a new place),
  • novel object test (memory and learning – exploration time of a novel object in a familiar context), and
  • forced swimming test (depression-like behavior – amount of activity in the cylinder filled water).

Meanwhile, plasma corticosterone, gut microbiota composition, and cecal short-chain fatty acids were measured. Taken together, the authors found that the prebiotic FOS+GOS treatment exhibited both antidepressant and anxiolytic (anti-anxiety) effects. However, there were no major effects observed on cognition, nociception (response to pain stimulus), and sociability; with the exception of blunted aggressive behavior and more prosocial approaches.

In the second part, FOS+GOS or water-treated mice were exposed to chronic psychosocial stress. Behavior, immune, and microbiota parameters were assessed. Under stress, the microbiota composition of water-treated mice changed (decreased concentration of bifidobacterium and lactobacillus), which effect was reversed by treatment with prebiotics.

Furthermore, it was found that three weeks of chronic social stress significantly reduced social interaction, and increased stress indicators (basal corticosterone levels and stress-induced hyperthermia), whereas prebiotic administration protected from these effects.

After stimulation with a T-cell activator lectin (concanavalin A), the stressed, water-treated mice group presented increased levels of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor alpha), whereas in animals with prebiotics had these at normal levels.

Overall, these results suggest a beneficial role of prebiotic treatment in mice for stress-related behaviors and supporting the theory that modifying the intestinal microbiota via prebiotics represents a promising potential for supplement therapy in psychiatric disorders.

Watch YouTube Video:
https://youtu.be/E479yto8pyk

REFERENCES
Burokas, A., Arboleya, S., Moloney, R. D., Peterson, V. L., Murphy, K., Clarke, G., Stanton, C., Dinan, T. G., & Cryan, J. F. (2017). Targeting the Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis: Prebiotics Have Anxiolytic and Antidepressant-like Effects and Reverse the Impact of Chronic Stress in Mice. Biological Psychiatry, 82(7), 472–487. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2016.12.031

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